|The passage suggests which of the following regarding critics of Jones's work?|
The gender and class associations of handicrafts altered by the middle of the nineteenth century. During the eighteenth century, crafts such as embroidery, drizzling [unraveling and rewinding of metallic threads from brocades], and collage had been prized for their aristocratic associations and practiced by men as well as women. But in the early nineteenth century, handicraft became coded as a woman's hobby specifically, and it was increasingly identified with a middle-class sensibility, as a thrifty, skillful mode of domestic management. This does not mean handicraft was limited to the middle class, on the contrary, needlework continued to be popular with upper-class women, while domestic ornamentation was prized even by the very poor. But it means that handicraft now signified the moral, managerial virtues of the bourgeoisie, not just aristocratic leisure, and that members of other classes were emulating these middle-class ideals when they did craftwork. In the nineteenth century, when high-art venues were largely closed off to women, they channeled their creative urges into the world around them, using the elements most readily available. This kind of domestic decoration was also sanctioned because it added to the comforts of the home, whereas more ambitious high art was condemned as a selfish use of time taken away from the family.
Indeed, by the mid-nineteenth century, the handicraft's most visible and urgent function was to signify womanhood. Craft items were made by the home's female inhabitant and thus appeared to be an extension of her body, as well as carrying the signs of her taste and skill. The woman's hands had held it, her mind had planned it, her eyes had gauged it, and she had communicated something of her intangible subjectivity to the completed object. For the Victorians, then, women were ensconced in a cocoon of items of their own manufacture, representing otherwise invisible aspects of their identity. This is the image behind Ruskin's famous claim that "wherever a true wife comes, this home is always around her." The craft was frequently described as "pretty" or "elegant," qualities that elided the object with its maker's own body. The craft was the woman's home skills made concrete, a tangible trace of her household labor that was all the more valuable for having been produced in leisure hours, for it showed that labor was leisure, that she never stopped working to improve the domestic abode.
|The author suggests that during the eighteenth century, the practice of making handicrafts|
|The author quotes Ruskin primarily in order to|
|The primary purpose of the passage is to|
|It can be inferred that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following claims about handicraft during the nineteenth century?|
|Motivated reasoning, however, is subject to "'reasonableness constraints. For example, the accuracy of decision making is enhanced when the stakes for the decision are higher, when the decision must be justified, and when the decision will be made public. Such circumstances often apply to judicial decisions. The presence of stronger arguments contrary to preferences reduces the influence of motivations. The limitations of the power of motivated reasoning are apparent from the numerous unanimous opinions of the United States Supreme Court [whose members generally represent a range of ideological predispositions] and other cases in which justices appear to vote contrary to their ideological preferences. One would anticipate that the influence of such motivated reasoning is at its apex when the law is relatively less determinate, which is consistent with the findings of empirical research.|
|The author suggests which of the following about motivated reasoning?|
|It can be inferred that the author uses the United States Supreme Court to illustrate the argument because of a belief that the|
|The author suggests which of the following about the "circumstances" mentioned in the passage?|
|The distinction between the nutritional quality and quantity of prey is one component of the hypotheses that attempt to explain the declining populations of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska beginning in the 1970s. One view holds that the quantity of prey available was high overall, but because of the species composition of available prey (primarily non-fatty fish of the gadid family), the diet was nutritionally inferior-the junk food hypothesis. An alternative view is that gadids are nutritionally adequate but were not available in sufficient numbers because of fishing or some other factor. In either case, juvenile sea lions would be affected more than mature individuals because of the younger animals' higher energy requirements and relative inexperience at foraging.|
|The passage indicates that proponents of the junk food hypothesis assert which of the following about non- fatty fish of the gadid family?|
|The highlighted sentence performs which of the following functions in the passage?|
Recent archaeological excavations of the massive warehouses of Huanuco Pampa-an important city in the Incan empire of the twelfth to sixteenth centuries一initially led archaeologists to believe that the city was a center for the distribution of food and goods to settlements in the surrounding region. However, excavations in those settlements have yielded few traces of the pottery containers used to store goods in Huanuco Pampa's warehouses. This absence of pottery traces is inconclusive, since goods may have been distributed in containers other than those belonging to the warehouses.
One sixteenth-century Spanish document may inadvertently reveal the answer: while detailing countless instances of goods being brought to the warehouses from the surrounding region, the document says nothing about goods being distributed throughout the surrounding region from the warehouses. Thus initial suggestions about the city s role as a distribution center may be incorrect: Huanuco Pampa's reason for maintaining these huge warehouses may have been simply to ensure its own well-being during periods of hardship.
|The passage is primarily concerned with|
|The author suggests which of the following about the sixteenth-century Spanish document discussed in the passage?|
|Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the author's reasoning about the probable purpose of the Huanuco Pampa warehouses?|
|Simulations indicate, and observations confirm, that the particles constituting Saturn's rings are giving up angular momentum to moons of the planet. The simulations predict that over just a few hundred million years, the related energy transfer will cause the rings' collapse. An analogous process occurs around young stars in the disks of matter from which planets emerge, and these protoplanetary disks do vanish that quickly, computer models show. Yet if Saturn's rings are so short-lived, a large comet or moon―the rings' presumed source一must have broken apart in Saturn's vicinity within the past several hundred million years. That is quite unlikely. It would have been much more probable in the young solar system-4 billion years ago or more.|
|It can be inferred that the author of the passage mentions protoplanetary disks because|
|The passage suggests which of the following about the "energy transfer"?|