|The economist argued that however much the government might trumpet the value of ______,it had been as bold as any other in its spending programs.|
|Not all Native American languages have lexical classes corresponding to those of other languages: many have no adjectival category, and some have even brought the _______ of nouns and verbs into question.|
|Because human emotions are behavioral complexes, they presumably took a very long time to develop. Therefore, a complete lack of any (i) _______human emotions in ancestral species is (ii)________ .|
|While it would be hard to categorize her as a(i)______liberal, the governor appears to have ceded some of her carefully cultivated reputation as (ii)______ and is now more in line with the liberal wing of her party.|
|Reviews written by music critic and composer Stephenson were hardly (i)______: musicians who performed his music could count on sympathetic coverage, while those who ignored him were held to (ii)_______ standard.|
|Climate change is posited to be a frequent factor in mass extinctions by some scientists who speculate that minor climate shifts can trigger a catastrophic cascade of effects. Although this pattern is (i)_______ in that it confirm warnings about our own possibly dire future, it is also somehow (ii)_______ , as it sets forth a context for today's turbulent weather as(iii)_______ in a natural, cyclical process.|
|The danger of isolation appears often in Anishinaabe stories but is nowhere more_______than in the Cree and Ojibwa tales about the Windigo, a terrifying ice monster that is literally a lost soul.|
|Although streams of solar particles cause beautiful auroras-the northern and southern lights--sometimes their consequences are less_____ : their electromagnetic effects, for instance, can overload power grids and damage orbiting satellites.|
|Although many parents tend to be extremely critical of the public school educational system as a whole, they are reluctant to treat their children`s teachers with equal_______ .|
|What differentiates this book from more traditional works on grammar is that it reserves its______ not for students of writing, but for teachers who harbor unduly restrictive views.|
|In 1644 Descartes described Earth as consisting of a central nucleus of hot primordial fluid surrounded by a solid opaque layer and then succeeding layers of rock, metal, water, and air. Geophysicists still subscribe to the notion of a layered Earth. In the current view, however, Earth possesses a solid inner core and a molten outer core both consisting of iron-rich alloys at enormous temperatures and pressures, followed at about 2.900 kilometers below the surface, by a mantle of solid less dense magnesium-iron silicates; the boundary between the upper and lower mantle lies 670 kilometers below the surface. At 30-50 kilometers below the continental surface (less than 10 kilometers below the seafloor), the Mohorovicic discontinuity marks an additional boundary-that between the mantle and the less dense crust above it.|
|According to the current view, a feature that distinguishes Earth's mantle from its core is that the mantle|
|In the passage. Descartes' description of Earth's interior is presented as|
A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of "truth to materials"; that is, it was essential that a buildings design express the "natural" character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance(sixteenth century ) a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects' designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed.
The diversity of Italy's natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace(1558-1570)used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles.
A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose "natural effect" is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance. this same material had been used against its "nature, " in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail.
Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the "nature" of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.
The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.
|The passage is primarily concerned with|
|The author of the passage mentions the Renaissance practices of substituting stucco for marble and of concealing joints in blocks of masonry in order to support the contention that Renaissance architects were|
|The author's mention of Florentine painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?|
|The passage suggests which of the following about the cited "scholars"?|