The term “revolution” has been reserved by most historians for social upheaval characterized by bloodshed, the use of force, and great technological change. Historian Robert Cornwall cogently argues that the term can be extended to apply to the massive agricultural transformation that took place in the mid- to late-eighteenth century.
Farming practices in the 1700s were largely unchanged from those in the preceding centuries: Hordes of peasants labored on the land for long hours with only meager crop yields to show for their hard work. The eighteenth century brought improved transportation, progress in animal breeding, new crops, and better farming techniques, all of which served to increase the overall crop yield. However, the greatest impact on English agricultural yields may well have come from the significant expansion of enclosure. Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, farming was a communal activity in which the entire village decided what, where, and when to plant. To combat soil exhaustion, farmers were required to leave a field fallow every third year, a practice which led to massive inefficiencies. The practice of enclosure allowed farmers to maintain a better balance between arable land and pasture. Land that was worn out could be converted to grazing land for cattle, thus enriching and restoring it.
To move beyond subsistence-level farming, new ways to transport excess crops to market had to be found. The development of canal systems as well as an expanded and improved roadway system facilitated transportation.
|The passage suggests that which of the following needed to take place in order for the agricultural revolution to take hold?|
|Echinosorex gymnura, known colloquially as the moon rat or gymnure, is one of the many fascinating creatures that inhabit the jungles of Southeast Asia. A close relative of the hedgehog, the moon rat likewise belongs to the order Insectivora and the family Erinaceidae. However, the family then splits into the sub-family Hylomyinae, which contains three separate genera and eight distinct species. The appearance and habitat of the moon rat are actually far more similar to those of various members of the order Rodentia, though its eating habits are more in line with its fellow insectivores. Ultimately, the taxonomic classification of this animal is useful only when considered along with other information regarding the animal’s ecological niche.|
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
Which of the following scenarios demonstrates the idea put forth by the author of this passage regarding animal classification?
Chinua Achebe’s masterpiece Things Fall Apart was borne out of Achebe’s frustration at the manner in which African nations had, up until then, been portrayed in European novels. The book tells of Christian missionaries to Nigeria who disrupt traditional Igbo life, thereby driving the protagonist Oknokwo, a village elder, to suicide.
Achebe’s book gained him instant recognition. Critics rightly praised the book’s vivid accounts of tribal beliefs and culture, and commended Achebe’s inclusion of Igbo proverbs. He was recognized not only as a historian, but also as a novelist whose work could be likened to that of a Greek tragedy.
However, not all critical views of Achebe’s work were laudatory. Some critics felt that Achebe’s novel placed undue blame on the colonialists. These critics argued that Achebe’s portrayal did not show adequate gratitude for the introduction of Western culture and technology.
|The word laudatory, as used in the passage, could most effectively be replaced with which of the following?|
|The six New England states are ranked by population in Year X and in Year Y. How many states had a different ranking from Year X to Year Y ?|
|In 1993, the median reading test score for ninth grade students was in which score range?|
|For how many of the cities shown was the highest temperature in Year Y greater than or equal to the highest temperature in Year X ?|
|For the year in which Newsmagazine x accounted for 14.6 percent of nationwide newsmagazine subscriptions, what was the number of subscriptions to Newsmagazine x?|
In analyzing the poetry of Mona Feather, we are confronted with three different yardsticks by which to measure her work. We could consider her poems as the product of a twentieth-century artist in the tradition of James Joyce, T.S. Eliot, and Wallace Stevens. However, to do so would be to ignore a facet of her that informs every word she writes and that stems from her identity as a woman. Yet, to characterize her solely as a woman poet is to deny her cultural heritage, for Mona Feather is also the first modern poet of stature who is also an American Indian.
Stanley Wilson has argued compellingly that the huge popularity Feather enjoys among the Indian reservation school population of the United States is creating a whole new generation of poetry enthusiasts in an age when the reading of poetry is on the wane. While this is undoubtedly true, Mr. Wilson’s praise gives the impression that Feather’s readership is limited to her own culture—an impression which hints that Mr. Wilson is himself only measuring her by one criterion. Radical feminist writers have long found in Feather’s poetry a sense of self-pride which struck a chord with their own more political philosophies. Her imagery, which always made use of the early Native American traditions in which the woman had an important role, was seen as the awakened sensibility of a kindred spirit.
Yet for all the “feminist” touches in her writing, it would be a disservice to consign Feather to the ranks of politicized writers, for her message is deeper than that. The despair that characterized twentieth-century modern poets is to be found in Mona Feather’s work as well; she writes of the American Indians of the 1930s confined to ever-shrinking reservations and finds in that a metaphor for all of modern mankind trapped on a shrinking earth of limited resources.
|The primary purpose of the passage is to|
|Among the more interesting elements of etymology is the attempt to derive the meaning of seemingly nonsensical expressions. Take, for instance, the increasingly archaic rural phrase “to buy a pig in a poke.” For centuries, the expression has been used to signify the purchase of an item without full knowledge of its condition, and it relates to the common Renaissance practice of securing suckling pigs for transport to market in a poke, or drawstring bag. Unscrupulous sellers would sometimes attempt to dupe purchasers by replacing the suckling pig with a cat, considered worthless at market. An unsuspecting or naive buyer might fail to confirm the bag's contents; a more urbane buyer, though, would be sure to check and—should the seller be dishonest—"let the cat out of the bag."|
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
Which of the following phrases from the passage would help the reader infer the meaning of the word urbane as used in context?
Scholars of early Buddhist art agree that Buddha images in human form emerged around the first century A.D. in the regions of Mathura, located in central India, and Gandhara, now part of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Uncertainty exists, however, about whether Mathura or Gandhara has the stronger claim to primacy. Those who believe that anthropomorphic sculptures of the Buddha first appeared in Gandhara point out that earlier Buddhist art was largely aniconic and that bas relief was far more common than sculpture. They argue that Greek influence in Gandhara promoted the development of the new style and form of representation of the divine. Other scholars make the case for indigenous development of such representations in Mathura, citing a centuries-long record of iconic art in pre-Buddhist traditions. They don’t reject all foreign influence, but they argue that local traditions provided a strong foundation for the development of Buddhist sculpture.
Art historians bolster their arguments by highlighting distinctive features of the sculptures from each region. For example, the artists of Gandhara sculpted their Buddhas in heavy, pleated drapery, similar to that of Greek statues. Wavy lines indicating hair also reflect Greek influence. Mathura Buddhas, on the other hand, are portrayed wearing lighter robes draped in a monastic style, often with part of the shoulder and chest left bare. Elongated earlobes and strong facial features characterize Mathura images of the Buddha, whereas Gandhara images possess more angular features. Sorting out dates and directions of influence has proven difficult, but the totality of evidence suggests that the Buddha image evolved simultaneously in both regions and was shaped by the predominant cultural influences in each region.
|Which of the following, if true, would those who believe that anthropomorphic images of Buddha originated in Gandhara be likely to cite as evidence for their viewpoint?|