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Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a possible reason for the relative unpopularity of Hard Times EXCEPT for the
Was resource intensification-an increase in labor and time devoted to subsistence activities in order to increase food yields-by Dorset Paleo-Eskimos and Recent Indians on the island of Newfoundland simply a response to population pressure? Not exactly. On Newfoundland, population pressure did not result from a steadily growing resident population but, rather, from the arrival and lingering presence of new and significantly different populations. Newfoundlands hunter-gatherer populations-both resident and newcomer-adjusted to the presence of other populations through niche differentiation. Building on a tradition that emphasized marine resources, Dorset Paleo-Eskimos intensified their harvest of seals in response to the arrival of Recent Indians in the first few centuries A.D. Recent Indians who were more familiar with broad-based, interior-maritime adaptation, intensified this strategy to cope with the Dorset.
According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the arrival of the Recent Indians?
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?
Having a larger assortment to choose from increases consumers expectations about matching their preferences. The heightened expectations seem logical, since assortments containing more or more varied items should increase the degree to which preferences can be matched. In practice, however, as assortment size increases, the degree to which consumers realize better preference matches often rises relatively little. Larger assortments may not actually offer more variety, the market may simply not supply an envisioned offering, or in the absence of sophisticated search tools, consumers may miss a better preference match even if it is available. Therefore, larger assortments can increase the likelihood that expectations will not be met, leaving consumers less satisfied with options chosen from larger rather than smaller assortments.
In the highlighted portion of the passage, the author assumes that
Which of the following best describes the function of the first sentence in the authors argument as a whole?
Founder mutations are a class of disease-causing genetic mutations, each derived from its own ancestral "founder" in whom the mutation originated. While most disease-causing mutations are found in humans at a rate of one in a few thousand to one in a few million people, founder mutation can occur at much higher rates. This apparent anomaly is partially explained by the fact that most founder mutations are recessive: only a person with copies of the affected gene from both parents becomes ill. Most people with only one copy of the gene-"carriers"-survive and pass the gene to offspring. Furthermore, the single copy of a founder mutation often confers a survival advantage on carriers. For example, the hereditary hemochromatosis mutation protects carriers from iron-deficiency anemia because the mutated gene allows increased efficiency of iron absorption.
The passage indicates which of the following about founder mutations?
The author of the passage mentions the "hereditary hemochromatosis mutation" primarily in order to illustrate
The recently announced discovery of the first known planet orbiting a pulsar (the ultradense, pulsating remnant off the supernova explosion of a star) turned out to be based on faulty data. Had this discovery been confirmed, theorists would have had difficulty accounting for the existence of such a planet. The supernova would certainly have destroyed any preexisting planets. This particular pulsar is relatively young, allowing little time for a new planet to have coalesced, and it rotates relatively slowly, implying that it has not interacted with any nearby star since the supernova. But newer evidence of a different pulsar with planets is more promising. This is a rapidly spurring "millisecond pulsar" thought to be a much older object that has pulled gaseous material from a stellar neighbor, causing its rotational speed to increase. Leftover, unconsumed gas around such a pulsar could, in theory, coalesce into planets. Or the pulsars radiation might have vaporized a companion star, providing new material for planetary formation.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
Which of the following best describe the organization of the passage?
Which of the following can be inferred regarding the pulsar discussed in the first paragraph?
In 1838, twenty-nine years before publishing his translation of Dantes Inferno, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote that "to understand Dante- it is absolutely necessary to understand the Italian Language." How true was Longfellow to his own dictum? Judging by the problems he had in composing a simple inscription, his ability to express himself in Italian was probably modest. However, this does not mean his understanding of the written language was inadequate. Longfellows translation is on the whole not only correct but accurate and attentive to the semantic nuances of the original. Indeed, the literalness of his translation shows he understood Dantes language so well that he felt duty bound to render into English its extraordinary precision, richness, and variety.
The author cites Longfellows remarks from 1838 in order to
Which of the following does the author cite as support in assessing Longfellow`s knowledge of the Italian language?
Marine ecosystems certainly have less permanence than terrestrial ecosystems. Ashore, ecologists are not confronted with shifting ecological discontinuities, or with changes in the characteristic conditions of individual ecosystems, because, unless man intervenes, the tree line on a mountain or the passage between grassland and savannah remains approximately static over a human lifetime. It is only on the millennial scale that such boundaries migrate significantly, or that characteristic regional ecosystems disappear. Urban sprawl, deforestation, overgrazing, and intensive agriculture are accomplishing in a few decades what nature cannily do in centuries, but that sad fact does not alter the argument. Although the human population explosion can produce pressures that rapidly shift ecological boundaries and modify ecosystems ashore, it is paradoxically more difficult directly to modify the average locations of the ephemeral and shifting ecological boundaries of the sea. We can accomplish this only indirectly by atmospheric modification, resulting in a changed global climate and a shifted ocean circulation. Indeed, if we are agreed that the regional characteristics of marine ecosystems are consequent on the characteristics of the physical environment, then we must assume that ecological conditions are as impermanent as the physical conditions themselves. And these, it is now well understood, are in continual flux and state of change at all scales of variability.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
The passage indicates which of the following about the "ecological boundaries of the sea?"
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