|A computer program can provide information in ways that force students to（i）_____learning instead of being merely （ii）_____ of knowledge.|
|The form and physiology of leaves vary according to the _____ in which they develop: for example, leaves display a wide range of adaptations to different degrees of light and moisture.|
|One theory about intelligence sees （i）_____ as the logical structure underlying thinking and insists that since animals are mute, they must be （ii）_____ as well.|
|Though （i）_____ in her personal life, Edna St. Vincent Millay was nonetheless （ii）_____ about her work, usually producing several pages of complicated rhyme in a day.|
|The children's _____ natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents.|
|By （i）_____ scientific rigor with a quantitative approach, researchers in the social sciences may often have （ii）_____ their scope to those narrowly circumscribed topics that are well suited to quantitative methods.|
|As early as the seventeenth century, philosophers called attention to the （i）_____ character of the issue, and their twentieth-century counterparts still approach it with （ii）_____.|
|Since most if not all learning occurs through_____, relating one observation to another, it would be strange indeed if the study of other cultures did not also illuminate the study of our own.|
|The new （i）_____ of knowledge has created （ii）_____people: everyone believes that his or her subject cannot and possibly should not be understood by others.|
|If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organ-sms must live long enough for the parasite to （i）_____ ; if the host species becomes（ii）_____ so do its parasites.|
|The author argues for serious treatment of such arts as crochet and needlework, finding in too many art historians a cultural blindness （i）_____ to their （ii）_____textiles as a medium in which women artists pre-dominate.|
|Those who fear the influence of television deliberately_____ its persuasive power, hoping that they might keep knowledge of its potential to effect social change from being widely disseminated.|
|Because the high seriousness of their narratives resulted in part from their metaphysics, Southern writers were praised for their _____ bent.|
|Far from being （i）_____, Pat was always （ii）_____to appear acquiescent.|
|Influenced by the view of some twentieth-century feminists that women's position within the family is one of the central factors determining women's social position, some historians have underestimated the significance of the woman suffrage movement. These historians contend that nineteenth-century suffragism was less radical and, hence, less important than, for example, the moral reform movement or domestic feminism—two nineteenth-century movements in which women struggled for more power and autonomy within the family. True, by emphasizing these struggles, such historians have broadened the conventional view of nineteenth- century feminism, but they do a historical disservice to suffragism. Nineteenth-century feminists and antifeminist alike perceived the suffragists' demand for enfranchisement as the most radical element in women's protest, in part because suffragists were demanding power that was not based on the institution of the family, women's traditional sphere. When evaluating nineteenth-century feminism as a social force, contemporary historians should consider the perceptions of actual participants in the historical events.|
|The author asserts that the historians discussed in the passage have|
Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science, but their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists artisans, designers, inventors, and engineers---using non- scientific modes of thought. Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in the mind by a visual, nonverbal process. In the development of Western technology, it has been non- verbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because of geometry or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture in the minds of those who built them. The creative shaping process of a technologist's mind can be seen in nearly every artifact that exists. For exam- ple, in designing a diesel engine, a technologist might impress individual ways of nonverbal thinking on the machine by continually using an intuitive sense of rightness and fitness. What would be the shape of the com- bustion chamber? Where should the valves be placed? Should it have a long or short piston? Such questions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience, by physical requirements, by limitations of available space, and not least by a sense of form. Some decisions, such as wall thickness and pin diameter, may depend on scientific calculations, but the nonscientific component of design remains primary.
Design courses, then, should be an essential element in engineering curricula. Nonverbal thinking, a central mechanism in engineering design, involves perceptions, the stock-in-trade of the artist, not the scientist. Because perceptive processes are not assumed to entail "hard thinking," nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive processes and inferior to verbal or mathematical thought. But it is paradoxical that when the staff of the Historic American Engineering Record wished to have drawings made of machines and isometric views of industrial processes for its historical record of American engineering, the only college students with the requisite abilities were not engi- neering students, but rather students attending architectural schools.
It courses in design, which in a strongly analytical engineering curriculum provide the background required for practical problem- solving, are not provided, we can expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems. For example, early models of high-speed railroad cars loaded with sophisticated controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because a fan sucked snow into the electrical system. Absurd random failures that plague automatic control systems are not merely trivial aberrations; they are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics.
|In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with|
One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones assumes that the vigilant behavior—looking up, for example—is aimed at predators. If individuals on the edge of a group are more vigilant because they are at greater risk of being captured, then individuals on aver- age would have to be more vigilant in smaller groups, because the animals on the periphery of a group form a greater proportion of the whole group as the size of the group diminishes
. However, a different explanation is necessary in cases where the vigilant behavior is not directed at predators. J. Krebs has discovered that great blue herons look up more often when in smaller flocks than when in larger ones, solely as a consequence of poor feeding conditions. Krebs hypothesizes that the herons in smaller flocks are watching for herons that they might follow to better feeding pools, which usually attract larger numbers of the birds.
|It can be inferred from the passage that in species in which vigilant behavior is directed at predators, the tendency of the animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones would most likely be minimized if which of the following were true?|