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Power Plant Spokesperson: "The water quality of the Phage River as it passes through Praseopolis is below federal standards. The citizens of Praseopolis often blame the poor water quality on our coal-burning power plant, which is upstream from Praseopolis. But Vulcan Refinery, along a tributary of the Phage River even further upstream, releases several toxins into the water. Moreover, over 99% of the toxic materials measured in the Phage River in the vicinity of Praseopolis are consistent with metal refining, but not with the by-products of coal combustion.
In the power plant spokesperson's argument, the portion in boldface plays which of the following roles?
When a married couple has frequent emotionally satisfying conversations, they tend in overwhelming percentages to remain married throughout their live. Queen Melinda and Prince Jonathan, Duke of Westphalia, have been married for over sixty years, so clearly they must have emotionally satisfying conversations all the time.
This argument is most vulnerable to which criticism?
In a certain state, over 80% of the land is comprised of farms, but historically, large farm machinery has not sold well in this state. The percentage of land devoted to farms is not expected to increase. In fact, the number of farms in the state has been slowly declining over the past decade. A new manufacturer of large farm equipment is building a factory in the middle of this state, and the manufacturer's plans for success depend on strong in-state sales of their product. Both the manufacturer and the industry analysts are expecting this manufacturer to be quite successful over the next few years.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to provide a justification for the manufacturer's and the industry analysts' optimistic expectations?
Operations at the Green Hills Gold Mine are continuously releasing mercury into the headwaters of the Apache River, and most fish in the Apache River now have mercury levels at or above the legal limit for human consumption. With the price of gold rising, forcing more and more mining at Green Hills, there seems no hope for food fishing along the Apache River.
Which of the following plans, if feasible, would allow the state to assist the food fishing industries along the Apache?
In 1995, ecologists started to reintroduce the wolf into Yellowstone Park, where the wolf had been eliminated intentionally half a century earlier. Rangers expected a rise in the number of wolf would place limits on the elk population and on the populations of many mid-size mammals. One unexpected consequence was a dramatic rise in the population of foxes, which in turn helped to control many rodent populations.
Which of the following, if true, most helps explain the dramatic rise in the fox population?
NewTech clothes dryers, a new line of dryers that uses 1/3 the energy of traditional dryers, recently took over as the leading dryer-in terms of the number of units sold-in the nation of Imperia. This season, NewTech is expanding into the nation of Sumonia, producing 10,000 units for sale in the country. The company believes that the NewTech dryer will quickly sell out in Sumonia, leading the company to export more units before year`s end.
Which of the following, if true, suggests that NewTech`sdryers will not sell as well in Sumonia as the company expects?
The ponerines are the most diverse of all the ant groups and are global in distribution. They cannot really be thought of as sophisticated superorganisms, though, for they tend to live in small colonies of a few tens to a few thousand individuals, with one Australian species living in colonies of just a dozen. Like Stone Age human hunters who specialized in killing woolly mammoths, the ponerines tend to specialize in hunting one or a few kinds of prey. That the great success of the ponerines is achieved despite their primitive social organization presents entomologists with what is known as the ponerine paradox. It lacks a widely accepted solution, but researchers suspect that the ponerines` predilection to seek specialized types of prey limits their colony size (for such specialized hunters cannot gather enough food to develop large and sophisticated colonies). If this is the case, then the very characteristic that helps the ponerines to diversify and survive in a wide variety of environments also prevents them from attaining superorganism status.
In the context in which it appears, "predilection" most nearly means
Phytonutrients, found in fresh fruits and vegetables, have beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system. Because heart disease is a major health concern, American doctors should encourage all people, especially those with heart disease, to eat a diet high in fresh fruits and vegetables.
Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the argument above?
Political Analyst: "Although citizens of this state normally oppose any new taxes, they are overwhelmingly in favor of taxes that support the medical initiative. Candidate Johnson vowed to cut these taxes, and he was trounced in the primary elections. Furthermore, in a poll that asked citizens, "Would you pay higher taxes if it meant having the benefit of the new medical initiative?" , an astonishing 82% replied "Yes." This is a pattern of support for taxes we have not seen before in this state.
In the political analyst's argument, the portion in boldface plays which of the following roles?
While antibiotics have done inestimable good to humankind over the last seventy years, there are several drawbacks to using antibiotics that, until recently, have been overlooked. The human microbiome, which consists of the trillions of bacteria that reside in each person`s body, is essential to good health. Specifically, the body contains and requires both "good" and "bad" bacteria. It is when the proper equilibrium between the "good" bacteria and the "bad" bacteria is disrupted that a number of health issues can emerge. Nonetheless, antibiotics indiscriminately kill both the "good" and the "bad" bacteria, so each course of antibiotics should be followed by a treatment that_____.
Which of the following most logically completes the argument above?

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