It is very hard to prove or disprove the existence of the Loch Ness Monster because of the characteristics of the very loch that it supposedly inhabits. Loch Ness has cold, murky waters that yield almost zero visibility, a surface area of almost 22 square miles, and depths approaching 1,000 feet. Though the oldest reference to the monster can be traced back as far as 565 ce, the present incarnation of "Nessie" first caught the modern public's eye in April of 1933, shortly after local hotel owners Mr. and Mrs. John Mackay reportedly spotted, in their own words, "an enormous animal rolling and plunging." They detailed their incident to the Inverness Courier, and suddenly the Loch Ness monster was plucked from historical obscurity to be reborn in the pages of the world news. Since then there have been innumerable hoaxes, unexplained sightings, and serious scientific investigations that have turned up some interesting, yet inconclusive evidence. Recently, after the most technologically advanced search to date, a group of researchers working for the BBC concluded that the creature simply does not exist. But the daunting evidence of the researchers has seemingly not deterred the legions of tourists and part-time Nessie hunters. Apparently, as long as the slightest possibility of Nessie being real has existed, the hotels around the Loch, as they have been since 1933, will be full of intrigued souls hoping to catch just a glimpse of a real-life monster.
It can be inferred from the passage that the only way the mystery of the Loch Ness Monster will be solved is if
Increasingly, scientists in various fields are using multimedia, such as publicly-available videos, blogs, and tweets for research purposes. A neurobiologist who noticed that people posted videos of dancing animals conducted groundbreaking research on the relationship between vocal mimicking, language acquisition, and the ability to move to rhythm. Sociologists study the posted videos, blogs, and e-mails of convicted sex offenders to identify patterns of sociopathy. Years of home videos posted to the web revealed that subjects who developed schizophrenia in their late teens displayed certain key behaviors, such as lack of eye contact, weak responsiveness, and uneven motor development in infancy and childhood.
It can be reasonably inferred from the passage that
The design and architecture of Monticello reflects many of Thomas Jefferson's personal philosophies. For example, Jefferson, like many of the founding fathers, held strongly that the presidency was not equivalent to the role of a king, and in deliberate design, the size and scope of Monticello resembles more of a functional agrarian building rather than a showcase estate. The entranceway in Monticello is significantly more modest and cozy than the typical reception halls of the European monarchies. However, Jefferson himself was prone to excess, and many elements within the design, such as the large dome, serve little to no practical purpose. The tight, curving staircases in the entranceway had a strict width to reflect his republican ethos, even though it often rendered the stairs impractical. During Jefferson's life, Monticello was constantly under construction. Jefferson spent into his penury to improve it, perhaps revising his original ideas as his optimism grew and his finances dwindled.
The central point of the passage is to
According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, objects at different gravitational potentials or observers in motion experience variability in the speed of time. Where gravity is stronger, time moves more slowly; similarly, as an object's speed increases, its relative rate of time passage decreases. Atomic clocks moving at high velocities, such as on airplanes, or at high physical elevation have demonstrated these shifts in time. Even short distances, such as an upstairs bedroom or minor speeds, such as 10 meters per second, can demonstrate variance in the speed of time. This would appear to apply to normal biological processes: one's feet age more slowly than one's head as one's feet are more affected by Earth's gravitational pull. Living at higher altitudes, whether in mountains or in the penthouse of a skyscraper, also ages a body faster than spending more time closer to the ground. Objects in motion, even at a casual pace, would appear to a stationary observer to age more slowly as well. However, although the difference in perceived time is measurable, it is very small-about 100 nanoseconds over 100 years, so it's unlikely to entice anyone to give up their top floor corner office or mountaintop cabin to avoid a wrinkle or gray hair before its natural time.
Based on the information in the passage, with which of the following would the author most likely agree?
The Internet has tremendous potential to aid in a child's development, but there is also undoubtedly a large amount of material on the Internet that could be harmful or otherwise inappropriate for young children. One attempt to protect children was the passage of the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) in 2000, which requires schools and public libraries that wish to receive federal funding for computers and Internet access to establish Internet filters, blocking graphic images on any computer a child might be able to access; given limited funding, especially in poorer areas, many public libraries had no choice but to accept the restrictions imposed by CIPA. As a result, CIPA is arguably unconstitutional because it is an action taken by the federal government to limit the freedom of expression. Given its extent, ease of access, and potential for anonymity, the Internet represents a great forum for the promulgation of free speech, and material that is legal, no matter how unappealing some may find it, is protected by the First Amendment. CIPA is in direct contradiction to the guarantee of free speech and is not an acceptable solution to helping safeguard children's activity on the Internet.
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McCulloch v. Maryland was a critical decision made by the Supreme Court in 1819. The case concerned a Maryland state tax imposed on bank notes chartered outside Maryland.The tax was an attempt to restrict the Second Bank of the United States, a national bank chartered by members of Congress, whose head, James McCulloch, filed suit in response to the tax. The court found in favor of McCulloch, stating that a bank is a "proper and suitable instrument" in Congress's function to spend funds and impose taxes and ordered the tax repealed. Although originally concerning a bank, the consequences of the holding extended further. By the holding, Chief Justice John Marshall set a precedent for what are now two fundamental principles of U.S. law concerning national government: that Congress possesses implied powers by the Constitution that allow the federal government to governeffectively, and that federal law supersedes state law.
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The city of Avignon in southeastern France possesses a unique spot in European history, as home to le Palais des Papes (the Palace of the Popes), the center of the Avignon Papacy during the fourteenth century. As a result of the conflict between his predecessor Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France, Clement V (a Frenchman himself) did not relocate to Rome upon his election as pope, but rather stayed in France, settling finally upon Avignon in 1309 as his papal residency. As the first significant departure of the papacy from Rome, this began a controversial chapter in the history of the papacy, highlighting the power of the French throne over the pope, and culminated in the Papal Schism. During the schism, two men simultaneously claimed the papacy, Gregory XI who returned to Rome in 1377 and Urban VI who remained in Avignon, and various nations chose one papacy or the other. This schism, which lasted from 1378 until 1417, represented the increasing influence of secular politics on the hierarchy of the church, and in many ways foreshadowed the discontent that led to Luther's Reformation one hundred years later.
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Spelt is a type of wheat that served as a staple in European diets from the Bronze Age until well into the Middle Ages. Although considered the food of peasants for millenia, spelt has recently received attention as a healthier option to other grains, including ordinary wheat. More easily digestible than ordinary wheat or other grains, spelt is also notable for being less likely to cause allergic reactions in individuals who cannot digest other types of wheat, although it is still classified as a "gluten grain." Its nutritional value should not be overlooked, as it contains more protein, niacin, and other B vitamins, as well as fewer carbohydrates, than ordinary wheat. Although once limited to specialty stores, spelt is becoming increasingly popular, and spelt pasta, spelt bread, and other products may be found in many more generic grocery stores.
Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?
One of the most difficult and popular subjects in the study of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages is the figure of the historical King Arthur. Now popularly remembered as the leader of the Knights of the Round Table, and the basis for one of the most famous cycles in European literature, Arthur arises from a mix of history and legend--a mix which countless scholars have questioned, theorized, and argued. Dated to the early sixth century, much of what is posited about his existence lies in his connection to other, more factually determined events, such as the Battle of Badon Hill, popularly hailed as Arthur's great victory over the Saxon invaders, which is known to have been a historical battle between the Britons and Saxons in the late fifth or early sixth century. The leader of the victorious Britons is, however, uncertain. Literary references to Arthur specifically are from much later texts (and references to him as "King" even later), many of whose reliability is highly suspect, and many of the stories about him are now accepted as borrowed from the deeds of other figures or entirely fabricated. Nevertheless, there are small tidbits of information that point to a popular leader named "Arthur" around the turn of the sixth century; however, the connection of this shadowy figure to the Arthur of legend remains, ultimately, unknowable.
What is the primary purpose of this passage?
The title Ultimus Romanorum ("Last of the Romans") has been attributed to various men in history who were seen to exemplify the greatest characteristics and values of Roman culture, and whose deaths were seen to be also the death of those traits. Most of the figures bearing the name died in the period of the late Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages. Flavius Stilicho, Flavius Aetius, and Flavius Belisarius were all called Ultimus Romanorum for their tactical prowess as military generals, whereas Boethius and Pope Gregory I became known as Ultimus Romanorum for their theological and philosophical works. Justinian I bore the name for his administrative skills and as the last Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire to speak Latin natively, but Romulus Augustus and Julius Nepos gained the title by their claims to being the final Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. As can be seen from these few examples, there was no clear definition of what made a man Ultimus Romanorum, and, indeed, many different men were awarded the title for many different reasons--there was no official declaration, simply by popular or individual acclamation. It is ironic, however, that the first man to call someone Ultimus Romanorum was Julius Caesar, who used the term to refer to Marcus Junius Brutus as the final embodiment of the spirit of Rome--Brutus would later become the most famous of Caesar's assassins.
According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?


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