Sanskrit grammarian Pānini (c. 520–460 BC) is the earliest known linguist, often acknowledged as the founder of linguistics. Most renowned for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in an extended text that is still in use today, Pānini devised a grammar of Sanskrit that is technical and highly systematized. Inherent in its analytic approach are the concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme, and the root, only documented by Western linguists some two millennia later. His rules fully describe Sanskrit morphology without any redundancy. A consequence of his grammar's focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of contemporary "machine language," as opposed to "human readable" programming languages. Feinstein's scholarship contends that Pānini's sophisticated logical rules and techniques have been widely influential in both ancient and modern linguistics. Conversely, Wherry claims that South Indian linguist Tolkāppiyar (3rd century BC) was a more significant author of linguistic theory. Tolkāppiyar wrote the grammar text of Tamil, which is also in use today.
The passage states that Pānini accomplished all of the following EXCEPT
Although The Prince is frequently criticized for what is commonly thought to be the author's advocacy of the admittedly harsh, unscrupulous methods of grabbing power and in ruling, in reality, Machiavelli portrays successful actions that must be taken and that have made for numerous great accomplishments. True, some critics condemn him for being na?ve or for promoting fraud, force, and immorality in politics. Yet these historians fail to praise his ability to separate moral from political issues and ignore that his writing supports a republican form of government by exposing the faults of princedoms. In The Prince, Machiavelli provides illustrations from the lives of legendary leaders such as Caesar, Borgia, and Pope Julius II. Historians have pointed out that it is probable Machiavelli exaggerated or distorted some details regarding various rulers. It is clear, nonetheless, that this 16th-century political scientist is not merely spouting his own philosophies, but had read and observed the most efficient governing tools of the great leaders.
The author's primary purpose in the passage is to
Everything that is made in nature is capable of biodegrading back into nature to produce new substances or materials from the old. Biodegradable products can be broken down efficiently if given the appropriate environment to do so. The process in its natural form is perfect and omnipresent. Human participation in this process creates certain materials incapable of decomposing. The biodegradability of an item relies on three major factors. First, anything that is made up of natural substances or materials will return to the earth in some way, providing it has not been altered by manmade substances. The microorganisms responsible for the breakdown procedure do not exist for unnatural materials. Biodegradable products must also break down within a reasonable period of time. Finally, the substance or material must break down into a form that is not harmful to the ecosystem such as water, carbon dioxide, and natural minerals.
The passage is primarily concerned with
"A LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM," S.R. Ranganathan asserts in his Fifth, and final, Law of Library Science. In this, he allows (and even calls) for the library to adapt to the educational and knowledge demands of the society within which it exists. In a slightly tongue-in-cheek moment, he suggests that perhaps we shall eventually exchange knowledge by thought alone, like the utopia in H.G. Wells' Men Like Gods, but he continues to a more realistic supposition in which he suggests that knowledge may someday be spread by means beyond the printed page. In our contemporary world, we can see this as the revolutionary influence that the digital age has brought to the library world. Indeed, establishing the role of the library in the digital age is arguably the greatest challenge the modern librarian faces. Librarians are, by traditional image, a people resistant to change, and there persists an ongoing fear that innovations such as the Internet could render the old-fashioned library obsolete.

Ranganathan's response to this, however, might have been "and well it should!" - his focus of the library was on its place as a central hub of learning, not as an archive of textual artifacts. He saw no concern for the library in moving beyond the book, and this trend is visible in our own field as we begin to redefine our roles. To him, the dichotomy of internet versus library would itself be the crisis; librarians should not be asking how they can adapt to the digital age, with its new challenges and demands, nor should they be worrying about the development of information storage systems beyond "their" realm of the book and physical library. Rather, they must concern themselves with how they, as educators and providers of information, can help to develop the future of information dissemination. That the library world must even be concerned with how to respond to the Internet as an information source is an indication that it has been failing in Ranganathan's call -- the library has failed to grow.
Which of the following best describes the author's use of the phrase "tongue-in-cheek moment?"
The Middle English language arose in the years following the Norman Invasion in 1066 and lasted until the late fifteenth century; its development over these years was marked by a sizable reduction in inflected forms, continental influences on vocabulary, and a gradual disappearance of several characters, including ash, eth, yogh, thorn, and wynn. Of these, the thorn is notable for its particularly unusual decline in English. Borrowed from the Old Norse runic alphabet, thorn (T t) is a dental fricative, similar to th in Modern English, and can be either voiced (as in th in English breathe) or voiceless (as in th in English breath). By the fourteenth century, however, th was being increasingly used in thorn's place, and the shape of thorn itself began to change, coming to resemble most closely the letter Y, which would later replace thorn entirely. This led to confusion surrounding the late Middle and early Modern English definite article ye, which is even now frequently used anachronistically in names of establishments to give them an "older" or more rustic feel. However, the ye found in texts from the late Middle English is, in fact, identical to the in pronunciation -- Y was simply used as a replacement for thorn in writing, in large part due to the lack of thorn on printing presses imported from the continent.
Based on the passage, which of the following is a likely reason for the lack of thorn on imported printing presses?
Modern anthropology in the United States and the United Kingdom is frequently divided into four sub-fields: cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, physical anthropology, and archeology. Likely as a result of the diverse origins of the field as a whole, this division has led to noticeable rifts in the field. In many universities in the UK, these sub-fields are separated into entirely different departments -- while physical anthropology, which focuses on the study of human populations from an evolutionary perspective, is sometimes absorbed into other departments, linguistics (which studies human language), archeology (the study of human material culture through artifacts), and cultural or social anthropology (commonly referred to as simply "anthropology," it focuses on the study of human culture through ethnography) all possess departments of their own.

Although these distinctions have allowed for the development of unique techniques and theories within each sub-field, at the same time this separation of sub-fields has perhaps gone too far in disassembling the field of anthropology. If the goal of the field is to provide understanding about humanity and its culture, downplaying any of these sub-fields will inevitably cripple any study. Any attempt to define and understand what makes us human cannot forgo an investigation of our language, of our evolution, of our material goods, or of our interpersonal interactions.
Based on the passage, what is commonly the focus of the anthropology department at a university in the United Kingdom?
A main component of NASA's search for evidence of life on Mars is the identification of biosignatures. The most common of these indicative markers of extant or extinct life are carbonate minerals, which are formed when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with other minerals and liquid water. A widely held belief among astrobiologists is that proof of running or standing liquid water can be construed as diagnostic evidence of the existence of life. It has been established that a large portion of the red planet's surface contains areas of frozen water, leading some scientists to theorize that the climate of ancient Mars was a greenhouse-like atmosphere heavy with carbon dioxide. In this type of atmosphere, the existence of vast oceans similar to those of Earth would have been a very real possibility. Images of the landscape of Mars have lent support to these theories. Massive surface erosions resembling the Grand Canyon and land features that appear to be dried-up sea floor suggest that liquid water was indeed present on Mars at one point in the planet's history. But recent findings on the planet paint a different picture. Though trace carbonates have been identified, the amounts are not commensurate with the prolonged existence of large bodies of flowing liquid water.
According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true of Mars?
Light has been used as a beacon to mariners for thousands of years, for as long as man has taken to the sea. To the uneducated eye each of these lighthouses, despite their distinct locations, seems to have irrelevant variations on a homogeneous design. However, nothing could be further from the truth.

Each lighthouse has its own characteristic intervals of light and eclipse. These intervals, known as nightmarks or signatures, are set in specific patterns defined with such names as flashing, occulting, group flashing, or group occulting. What distinguishes each lighthouse is the rate of repetition for the intervals of flash and eclipse or fixed flashing. This unique repetition rate is called a period, and each lighthouse's period is charted in U.S. Coast Guard publications known as light lists. In addition to a lighthouse's nightmarks, its daymarks are included in these charts as well. Smart sailors still value these charts because they know that long after their fragile radios and radar rust into uselessness, the stalwart lighthouses will still be standing tall.
Based on the final sentence of the passage, it can be inferred that the author would describe a sailor who relies solely on technology as a means of navigation as
In 1950, a group of physicists met to discuss recent newspaper reports on sightings of UFO's (Unidentified Flying Objects). During this lunchtime conversation, Enrico Fermi, a Nobel Prize winner in physics, asked the question, "So, where are they?" -- by which he meant, "where are the aliens." His point was that, with so many stars in the Milky Way, it should be expected that the conditions for life would exist in many places in our galaxy -- not just on the Earth. If life exists, then evolution would be expected to lead to intelligent species and eventually to technological civilizations. Yet science has so far found no trace of alien civilizations, despite the considerable effort devoted to projects such as SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence).

While alien civilizations are typically the prerogative of science fiction, there is nevertheless a serious scientific purpose to the search for evidence of other civilizations. If humanity is indeed a singular case, there must be an explanation as to why our star (the sun), our solar system and our planet are unique. |~Many theories have been proposed to explain the apparent lack of other life forms. Life, and especially intelligent life, may in fact be exceedingly rare, or such life exists and we have neither found it, been able to contact it, or we simply have not noticed it.| Each of these points of view has many different theories associated with it, making the "Fermi paradox" an active area of research and scientific thought, especially in the emerging field of astrobiology.
Which of the following best paraphrases the Fermi paradox?
In the Ptolemaic cosmology the earth is regarded as a fixed point with the other planets revolving around it .One reason for supposing that the earth is not moving is that if you drop an object it falls straight to the ground; if the earth was moving, Ptolemy reasoned that it would fall in a different place because the earth would move in between when you released the object and when it hit the ground. In fact, this is incorrect as can be demonstrated by dropping an object (keys for example) while walking. The keys do not fall to the ground at the place you stood when you released them but at the place you are, roughly speaking, when the keys hit the ground. In other words the keys move with you after you let them go, as long as you keep going with the same speed. This was first explained by Galileo in his famous work "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems," When the keys are released they have same forward velocity with respect to the earth as you, the walker, do. In addition they experience a gravitational force pulling them down. So they drop to the ground while maintaining the same forward velocity, assuming we can neglect the drag of the air, and arrive at the same place as your feet. In a similar manner Galileo argued that you would not be able to tell if the earth is moving or not by experiments done on earth, thereby removing an important obstacle to the heliocentric (sun centered) cosmology of Copernicus. Today the principle that the laws of mechanics are the same in any frame moving with a constant velocity is called "Galilean invariance," and would play a crucial role in Einstein's development of special relativity.
What is the purpose of the highlighted phrase?


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