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It is imperative that rice fields are flooded at the proper time. Rice will grow less productively if flooded before reaching 4 inches. Flooding should begin when the rice reaches a height of 4 to 6 inches. Floodwaters will then provide a favorable environment for rice growth, help control weeds and stabilize soil ammonium nitrogen. In order to aid weed control of both broadleaf and grass, and to reduce nitrogen losses, establish the first flood within 3 to 5 days after pre-flood nitrogen applications. The depth of the flood is as important as its timing. The flood should be no deeper than 6 inches; deeper water interferes with proper tillering of rice. Generally, a 2-inch flood on the upgrade side will prevent too-deep water if the levees were properly surveyed.
In the passage, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
The vote to demote Pluto from the status of planet was made by only 5% of astronomers, a fact lending force to the opposition's stance. The original intention of the summit was to preserve Pluto as the ninth planet, but the definition supporting that decision would also regulate that a number of other bodies in space be considered as planets, and thus, it was considered false. The resolution came a little over a week later stating that Pluto is, in fact, in a class of dwarf planets. Brown contends that dwarf planets are outside the scope of what defines a planet. He also believes that hundreds of dwarf planets exist that are yet unrecognized.But the term dwarf planet is confusing if the celestial body being referred to is not a planet. Gingerich believes this to be true and hopes that public opinion and further investigating will overturn the demotion.
The author's primary purpose in the passage is to
The accusation that a particular critical remark is "irrelevant" to its object is one of the most frequently heard in discussion and debate among critics. Frequently heard because frequently correct: there has never been a dearth of criticism that carelessly relates a work to an artist's biography, or employs pointless historic speculation, or invokes inappropriate creative standards, or describes the critic's own fuzzy reveries to misdirect our attention and obscure the essential significance of the object before us. Relevance and precision are critical to criticism. This fact underscores our concern to find a correct method for doing criticism, a concern that has generated more controversy than any single commentator might hope to obfuscate with footnotes.
The passage suggests that the author would agree with which of the following statements?
Declassification of government documents has shed new light on the events comprising the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. Prior to the accessibility of these records, the only sources of account of the Crisis for scholars and historians were the personal memoirs and narratives of the officials who served under Kennedy and Khrushchev during this period. Many of the declassified documents are transcriptions and notes of meetings between members of the CIA and President Kennedy's cabinet, as well the president himself. The revelations in these documents have demonstrated the inadvertent inaccuracies and intended obscurities inherent in the first-person narratives of the Crisis and have aided historians from all three countries involved in the Crisis to get a more authentic representation of what truly transpired, and for what reasons. Of perhaps the most interest to historians are declassified correspondences between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev that challenge the idea that the height of the Crisis extended only over the course of thirteen days. Indeed, these letters indicate that the Crisis was far from resolved by Khrushchev's October 28 decision to withdraw the Soviet missiles from Cuba; instead it endured far into the following month, while America slept fitfully under the illusion of peace.
The author is mainly concerned with
Two of the most revered poets in American history, Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson, are seemingly a study in contrast. But the nature in which both nineteenth-century poets chose to lead their lives, which has deceivingly set them apart in the eyes of many historians, is actually their greatest similarity. Whitman's energetic wanderings around the United States and his informal, inquisitive disposition were directly reflected in his style of verse and subject matter. He was a self-proclaimed man of the people, larger than life, interested in breaking down social preconceptions and boundaries, using his explorations of reality and the world at large in an attempt to translate the language of the universal soul. As he was open to the world, so was his style of poetry; rambling and unconstrained, yet accessible. While Whitman's style was a mirror of his external forays, Emily Dickinson's travels into the dark inner realms echoed throughout her writings. Where Whitman blazed an ample path for the masses, the introspective Dickinson beckoned them to get lost in her spare verse. Deftly picking and choosing her words, her vivid, aphoristic style was the distillation of a life spent in solitary contemplation and experimentation with form. The common bond shared between Whitman and Dickinson was each poet's obsessive drive for self-discovery. Though both poets' explorations into meaning took them on two very different journeys, the courage required for those personal voyages was tantamount, and the resulting work was an unconventional brilliance that still exerts its influence upon American poetry to this day.
The majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists worked hard to convince their compatriots that the changes they advocated were not revolutionary. Far from undermining the accepted distribution of power, their reforms would eliminate deviations from the democratic principle upon which it was based. Non-Garrisonian abolitionists repeatedly disavowed miscegenation and revolutionary intentions. As for the suffragists, despite the presence in the movement of socialists, and in the final years of a few blacks, immigrants, and workers, the racism and nativism in the movement's thinking were not an aberration and did not conflict with the movement's objective of suffrage. Far from saying, as presentist historians do, that the white abolitionists and suffragists compromised the abiding principles of equality and the equal right of all to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, just the opposite is suggested: the non-Garrisonian majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists showed what those principles meant in their respective generations, because they traced the farthest acceptable boundaries around them.
Martha Graham is remembered in the dance community as a pioneer of modern dance choreography. However, it was her desire to live on as a dancer. She danced first as a member of the Denishawn Company, put on solo performances in New York, and later danced at Radio City Music Hall. She gave lessons in movement and modeled coats to fund her own dance company. It was with this company that her eclectic and radical technique made its mark on modern dance history.

Graham was by no means the first dancer to deviate from the strict classical ballet techniques of the early 20th century. Many young American women were also making their own variations to the standard dance style. But Graham's alterations of sharp, jagged movements and sweeping floor work reformed the whole of modern dance theory and the very notion of what a dancer was. Her signature style continues to permeate the work of contemporary dance and influence modern choreographers, although some, such as Taylor and Cunningham, both former members of Graham's company, have disowned her intense manner of teaching and technique.
The passage states that Graham made a living doing all of the following EXCEPT
The culture surrounding popular music is constantly under scrutiny because of its influence on the already unpredictable teenage society, a group that comprises the main consumers of this type of music. Critics of pop music fear the sway that icons in this genre hold over adolescents because of the preconceived negative stereotypes these icons represent. The nature of the language used in the lyrics and the actions documented in the lifestyles of the artists serve to feed this concern. Pop music is subsequently held responsible for many of the turbulent issues facing teenagers. However, this unease and the oversimplified views held by older generations do not deter record labels and artists from continuing to create and mass-market not only music, but also behavior to the youth of the world.
In the context in which it appears, "preconceived" most nearly means
During the Eagles' pre-season, the coach created a policy to open infielder tryouts to all current players on other teams within the Valley League and to give no infield position to a player from outside the League if a Valley League player tries out who is qualified for the position. Coach's procedure has been adhered to, yet even though several Valley League players have been qualified for any particular infield position, some infield positions have been filled with players from other leagues.
If the information provided is true, which of the following statements must also be true about the Eagles' tryouts?
Sunscreen works through a combination of organic and inorganic chemicals that help block or absorb UV-B rays. UV-B rays cause sunburn and other sun-related skin damage. SPF, or Sun Protection Factor, is the gauge of how well sunscreen will protect the skin from UV-B rays. Thus, those who use sunscreen with a higher SPF will suffer fewer sunburns and sun-related skin issues. It is important to use a sunscreen with a high SPF because, over time, sun damage can cause significant problems for the skin.
In the information provided, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A box girder bridge, an evolution of the plate girder bridge, is fabricated from either poststressed concrete or sheet steel plate, and commonly built for roadway flyovers and light rail transport. Some modern steel trestles, for example, are composed of a number of girder bridge segments. If of concrete, girder bridges may be cast in place, using falsework supports removed after completion, or may be prefabricated (as the steel-plate type usually is) in a fabrication yard, then transported and placed using cranes. The latter method is often used in situations where access for construction is limited to times of light traffic, which may be detoured around the work area, utilizing a limited number of lanes.
The passage is primarily concerned with

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