Only since the Second World War has graphic design been categorized as a field worth knowing about and preserving, and most design collections have been narrowly defined. There are few extant archives of advertisements, some design collections include only political posters by established artists, other collections focus on such specific historical documents as election posters. Rigidly defined collections like these can foster pigeonholed concepts of design history. In contrast, Merrill Berman`s ambitious reach as a collector- one that includes avant-graphics, anonymous political posters, and commercial advertisements- preserves graphics in a wide range to show how graphic designs pervade a culture, not in isolation from on another but all mixed together part of the daily inundation of meanings and visual stimulation.
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlight sentence
The ability to recognize specific individuals has profound implications for the evolution of complex social behaviors such as reciprocal altruism. Many researchers assumed that recognition of individuals, a phenomenon predominantly observed in laboratory studies of fish, might also operate extensively in free-ranging fish populations, where it could underpin these complex interactions. In fact, evidence of individual recognition in free-ranging fish populations is equivocal. The possibility exists that for many species, individual recognition observed in the laboratory might be an artifact of experimental designs, which enforce prolonged interaction between individuals and which prevent the diluting effects on social structure of immigration into and emigration from the shoal, factors that in nature would erode group stability and prevent the learning of individual identities.
Click on the sentence in the passage that speculates about the effect of human intervention on an observation.
The author would likely agree with which of the following statements about the prevalence of specific individual recognition that occurred in fish in the laboratory studies discussed?
For most of the twentieth century, scholars generally accepted the proposition that nations are enduring entities that predated the rise of modern nation-states and that provided the social and cultural foundations of the state. This perspective has certainly been applied to Korea: most historians have assumed that the Korean nation has existed since the dawn of historical time. In recent years, however, Western scholars have questioned the idea of the nation as an enduring entity. Both Gellner and Anderson have argued, in their studies of European, Latin American, and Southeast Asian cases, that the nation is strictly a modern phenomenon, a forging of a common sense of identity among previously disparate social groups through the propagandizing efforts of activist intellectuals and the homogenizing organizational activities of the modern state. In short, it was the state that created the nation, not the other way around.

Younger Koreanists, with Em prominent among them, have begun to apply this approach to Korea. These scholars, noting the isolated nature of village life in premodern Korea and the sharp difference in regional dialects, suggest that ordinary villagers could not possibly have thought of themselves as fellow countrymen of villagers in other regions. These scholars also note that elites, conversely, often had outward-looking, universalistic orientations, as did aristocracies elsewhere, such as in premodern Europe. Finally, they observe that the very word for "nation" in Korean, minjok, is a neologism first employed by Japanese scholars as a translation of the Western concept and that it was first appropriated by Korean activists in the early twentieth century. They argue, therefore, that a Korean "nation" came into being only after that time.

In short, in the case of Korea we have an argument between "primordialists," who contend that nations are natural and universal units of history, and "modernists," who assert that nations are historically contingent products of modernity. The positions of both groups seem problematic. It seems unlikely that in the seventh century the popes of the warring states of Koguryo, Paekche, and Shilla all thought of themselves as members of a larger "Korean" collectivity. On the other hand, the inhabitants of the Korean peninsula had a much longer history-well over one thousand years-as a unified political collectivity than did the peoples studied by Gellner and Anderson. Not only does the remarkable endurance of the Korean state imply some sort of social and cultural basis for that unity, but the nature of the premodern Korean state as a centralized bureaucratic polity also suggests the possibility that the organizational activities of the state may have created a homogenous collectivity with a sense of shared identify much earlier than happened in the countries of western Europe that provided the model for "modernist" scholarship.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
Select the sentence in the third paragraph that provides information that supports the position of younger Koreanist regarding the creation of the Korean nation.
The author would probably agree with which of the following statements regarding the work of Gellner and of Anderson?
A law has been proposed requiring the cargo boxes of trucks carrying gravel to be covered by a tarpaulin, because vehicles driving close behind open-topped gravel trucks can be damaged by gravel flying off these trucks. The law is unlikely to substantially reduce such damage, however: flying gravel is much less likely to come from the cargo box itself than from the grooves of the tires, in which gravel can become wedged during loading.
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the argument given?
Many researchers attribute the large number of physiological and behavioral similarities between birds and mammals, which have separate evolutionary histories, to endothermy (a thermoregulatory strategy whereby warm body temperature is maintained through internal heat sources). However, Farmer argues that parental care rather than endothermy is the key to understanding the similarities between mammals and birds. According to Farmer, while endothermy provides an explanation for a few similarities, such as the presence of body insulation, endothermy is just one characteristic among many related to parental care. The two purported advantages of endothermy that have been most frequently cited by researchers are an expanded range of inhabitable environments and the ability to sustain vigorous exercise. But metabolism has to increase substantially (at great energy cost) therefore conferring any significant thermoregulatory advantage in terms of the former, and there is no causal biological linkage to explain why endothermy would be essential to sustain exercise. Farmer argues instead that endothermy evolved as a means to control incubation temperature and that the ability to sustain exercise evolved separately, as a means to improve a parent`s ability to forage and provision its young.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
Which of the following best characterizes the organization of the passage as a whole?
According to the passage, Farmer concedes that endothermy provides an explanation for which of the following features shared by birds and mammals?
Biologists have long debated about whether egg production in birds is biologically highly costly, some theorizing that egg production is energetically or nutritionally demanding. Lack, however, suggested that clutch size-the number of eggs a bird lays per breeding cycle-is far below the potential limit of egg production. He suggested that clutch size had instead evolved in relation to the number of young that the parents could successfully rear. Subsequently, most studies focused on limitations operating during chick rearing, particularly among altricial species (species in which the parents feed their young in the nest). Lack later recognized that in precocial species (species in which young feed themselves), clutch size might be explained by different factors-the availability of food for egg-laying females, for example.


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