|For good reasons, economists prefer to study people`s revealed preferences; that is, to look at individuals` actual choices and decisions rather than their (sometimes deceptive) stated intentions or their subjective reports of likes and dislikes. Yet people`s choices often bear a mixed relationship to their own happiness. Studies from behavioral economics and psychology find that people depart from the standard model of the rational economic agent in various ways; they make inconsistent choices, fail to learn from experiences, and base their own satisfaction on how their situation compares with that of others. If people display bounded rationality when it comes to maximizing utility, then their choices do not necessarily reflect their "true" preferences, and an exclusive reliance on choices to infer what people desire loses some appeal.|
|Why does the author note that people "make inconsistent choices"?|
|In the context in which it appears, "mixed" most nearly means?|
At first place, the constitutional bases of social change for women in the United States appear to rest on the civil rights delegation and Supreme Court decisions that took place between 1980 and 1990. Before then, for the long balance of its existence, the United States Constitution seems to have meted out justice to women with either indifference or paternalism. Gender is barely addressed in the vast historical landscape of the Constitution.
There is much to support this view of gender and the Constitution. The original language of the Constitution could be strikingly neutral with respect to gender precisely because the states would continue to regulate political and civil rights as well as much domestic issues as marital property rights. To be sure, the persistence of terms such as "person" in this eighteenth-century document suggests that the framers of the Constitution left the door open for persons, in all their legal and political manifestations, to include females. If they did so consciously, however, they were secure in the knowledge that the states were closing the door by employing the term "males" in their own statutes and constitutions. Federalism, then, helps to account for the Constitution`s silence on gender. Only when the Reconstruction amendments reshaped relations between the citizen, the states, and the federal government, and delineated distinctions between male citizen and female citizen, did gender work its way into the formal language of the Constitution, with negative consequences for the legal status of women.
Considering, then, the apparently sparse role of gender in much of the evolution of the Constitution, it is not at all surprising that scholars who are interested in the role of women in relation to the Constitution have riveted their attention on the years between 1960 and 1990. Notwithstanding the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment, it helped women advanced farther toward achieving legal equality within the 30 years before 1990 than in the preceding 170 years of concentrated efforts by the Women`s Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union.
Having said this, it needs to be emphasized that we have scarcely identified or connected the skeletal framework of a women`s legal history, much less than the lucid discourse over the political and social radiation of changes in the legal status of women. Our understanding of women`s legal rights in relation to the Constitution would be greatly enhanced if contemporary course about women and the Constitution took place within a well reconsidered historical context and if, in general, discourse on gender became just of the Constitutional mainstream. In order to understand the history of the very real but changing legal marginality of women, it is first necessary to fully identify not only context but events that have shaped women`s legal rights.
|The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?|
|According to the passage ,which of the following was a result of the Reconstruction amendments to the United states Constitution?|
|Which of the following best describes the function of the first sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?|
|The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements regarding the efforts to achieve legal equality for women in the United States during the period from 1960 to 1990?|
|Insect predators usually keep the number of aphids in crop fields low. However, sometimes the aphid population explodes in size, causing major damage. Much explosions happen when unusually cold weather keeps the number of aphids low in the spring. One possible explanation is that, with fewer aphids to feed on, the predator population also drop, and in summer when the aphid population starts to grow there are not enough predators to keep it in check.|
|Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the explanations given for aphid population explosions?|
|The poet Paul Lawrence Dunbar (1872-1906) was the premier Black writer of poetry that used the dialect of rural African American of the southern United States. Although Dunbar`s works were both popular with readers and acclaimed by literary critics during his lifetime, after the First World War a radical shift occurred, at least in critical opinion of his poetry, and twentieth-century critical evaluation of his work has been generally negative. Some critics attacked his work on social grounds for failing to challenge plantation stereotypes of African Americans. Other critics, such as the post James Weldon Johnson, argued from aesthetic grounds that dialect poetry in general was too limited as an artistic medium, and capable of producing only two effects: pathos and humor. The negative critical trend only began to reverse itself in the 1970s, when scholars began to emphasize the importance of mythic, psychological ,and historical dimensions of Dunbar`s works, focusing on the interior and exterior realities of African American life after the Civil War.|
|Which of the following general criticisms of dialect poetry is mentioned in the passage?|
|Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning scholars` use of mythic, psychological, and historical considerations in evaluating Dunbar`s works?|
|Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning literary critics` evaluations of Dunbar`s poetry?|
The space between the stars is filled with matter that interstellar conditions should prevent from coalescing into solid particle. Yet surprisingly tiny frozen particles, referred to as interstellar grains, do develop in these spaces. These grains are formed out of chemical elements that are synthesized during thermonuclear fusion in stars and supernova explosions.
The study of interstellar grains has been hampered by the inaccessibility of naturally occurring specimens for use in laboratory experiments. To date, the only source of information about interstellar grains is the stellar electromagnetic radiation that reaches the Earth after passing through regions of space containing interstellar grains. By observing the wavelengths scattered and absorbed by the grains,scientists have determined that a grain`s internal structure consists of a core composed of silicates (rocklike material) and a mantle composed entirely of organic compounds. It is hypothesized that each grain begins as a silicate "seedling" ejected from a mature star. Continuous physical and chemical evolution then occurs in the mantle formed around the seedling.
|The author uses the tem "seedling" most probably in order to|
|Which of the following describe a process that is most similar to the evolution of an interstellar grain, as it is described in the passage?|
|It can be inferred from the passage that the method currently used to analyze the structure of an interstellar grain could best be described is|
|One of the legends that has been attached to the nineteenth-century writer Edgar Allan Poe is that he was addicted to morphine. Poe discussed virtually every known aspect of his life in his letters. However, nowhere in his voluminous correspondence does he mention his reputed morphine addiction. On the basis of this evidence, it is safe to conclude that reports of his supposed addiction are untrue.|
|Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?|