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For Temnothorax ants in search of suitable rock crevices for new nest sites, size is an important consideration, and certain behaviors suggest how scouts might compare the size of several sites. After entering a crevice, scouts invariably exit and reenter. During their first inspection, they mark their route with their personal pheromones. (Experiments have shown that workers can distinguish their own pheromones from those of nest mates.) Some researchers believe that these ants are counting the frequency of intersections between their two exploratory trails. The smaller the area, the more likely they are to cross a spot twice. The observation that Temnothorax scouts always pave out a path of the same length on their first visit to sites strongly supports this hypothesis.
In light of the claim made by the "researchers", it can be inferred that ants ability to distinguish their own pheromones from these of nest mates is important primarily because
Which of the following best describe the function of the highlighted portion of the passage?
The Moon once had a magnetic field, and Mars shows evidence of having had one early in its history, but neither object currently possess a magnetic field. But Mercury, which is halfway in size between the Moon and Mars, has an active and relatively strong magnetic field. Planetary scientists think that planets require a liquid core to sustain such a field, but the smaller the planet, the faster it cools. Mercury, by all right, should have a core as cold and dead as the Moons, yet the magnetic field persists. This may result from the presence of elements like sulfur that, when mixed with iron, lower the melting point and keep the core molten.
The primary basis for the authors use of the expression "by all right" is Mercurys
In the context in which it appears, "dead" most nearly means
Projecting the idea of a distinctive female demand in seventeenth and eighteenth-century England was a groundbreaking departure in the history of marketing. The pioneers were the booksellers and printers who addressed specialist titles to the ladies in the 1600s, while the post-1688 print boom saw the publication of custom-designed ladies pocket diaries, a proliferation of female manuals of all kinds, the Female Spectator in the 1740s and the long-running Ladys Magazine from 1770. The leap to objects was made when leading furniture makers started classifying furniture by the sex, age, and specialist needs of the implied user in the new illustrated catalogs of the 1760s. Of course, sex distinctions in clothes are as old as civilization, while the idea of furniture suited to female needs is not unprecedented (think of birthing stools), but making difference systematic and concrete by means of word, image, and object was a decisive innovation. The rapid diffusion of ladies and gentlemens furniture suggests that gender distinctions already resonated powerfully with male and female consumers, but in the extension of the range of differentiated furniture, the projection of the trope by manufacturers thereafter, and its acceptance by consumers, conventional ideas of masculine importance and femininity delicacy were amplified and fixed. In the process, femininity was expressed in a specific and narrowly defined aesthetic register.
The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements regarding the affect of marketing gender-differentiated furniture?
According to the passage, which of the following is true about furniture prior to the 1760s?
Which of the following statements best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?
There is little dispute that the early poem of William Wordsworth (1770-1850) called An Evening Walk (1793) draws heavily on eighteenth-century descriptive traditions. Wordsworth made explicit connections to Thomson Gray, and other eighteenth-century poets in textual allusions. Wordsworths relationship to his eighteenth-century precursors has dominated critical reaction to the poem, but in a specific, indeed, limited manner, focusing on Wordsworths ability to break free of his influences. Because the mainstream of twentieth-century criticism represented Romanticism (the late-eighteenth to early-nineteenth-century movement of which Wordsworth became a defining figure) as a salutary revolt against the sedate norms of eighteenth-century culture, the fortunes of the poem have waxed or waned according to how solid a case could be made for placing it on the far side of the Romantic divide.
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
The passage suggests which of the following about mainstream twentieth-century critics?
Julie Roy Jeffreys recent book The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism shows how women participated in all aspects of the antislavery movement in the United States, from its inception in the early 1830s through the end of the Civil War (1861-1865). While scholars have already pointed out the importance of womens work in early abolitionist circles, especially in spreading a grassroots antislavery message through the constant and tireless circulation of petitions, Jeffery disputes certain aspects of the traditional account of their participation. For example, even though the abolitionist movement split into political and nonpolitical wings at the end of the 1830s and women were largely relegated to the less politicized faction, Jeffrey does not accept the view that womens participation became marginalized as a result. She demonstrates that women found numerous ways to persist effectively in the cause, such as by organizing the antislavery fundraising fairs of the 1840s. She also disputes the notion that African American women were relegated to secondary positions in the largely White movement. Their own abolitionist societies, she argues, often responded to the crises of the pre-Civil War decades, such as the Fugitive Slave Law, more directly than did integrated abolitionist groups.
The passage is primarily concerned with
Which of the following is cited by the "scholars" as an example of the important work done by early abolitionist women?
The author mentions the "fund-raising fairs of the 1840s" primarily in order to
Since many people form their opinions about the value of carnivore conservation programs based on accounts of human encounters with carnivores, it seems likely that negative interactions between humans and coyotes in northeastern North America would decrease public support for programs such as the reintroduction of wolves to the region. At the same time, coyotes are commonly, though not necessarily correctly, credited with lowering the density of the deer population in parts of the region. This perception also decreases public support for wolf reintroduction because it suggests that additional predators are unnecessary for controlling populations of prey species. Thus, while coyotes are by no means threatened with extinction, they do represent a significant conservation issue in northeastern North America.
According to the passage, which of the following is true of the publics perception of coyotes?
In the context in which it appears, "controlling" most nearly means

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