|Enlarged sensory organs in cave-dwelling organisms are not necessarily the rule: the phreatic Texas blind catfish has actually developed ________ barbels, whisker-like sensory organs near the mouth that are a prominent feature of other catfish species.|
|The headmaster believed that the school's strict code of conduct was very useful for making teenagers give up their _______ ways, turning them into minders of tradition and discipline.|
|Catherine the Great comes across in her memoirs as (i) _______ ruler with a razor-sharp intellect, letting nothing stand in the way of her ambitions. In short, the impression the memoirs give is entirely in accord with her reputation for being (ii) ________ .|
|The Cassini spacecraft initially found the bodies of liquid methane on Saturn's moon Titan to be very (i) _______, a surprising result since the reduced surface tension and viscosity of liquid methane, as compared to water on Earth, should make it (ii) _______ waves.|
|The enthusiasm for dancing in New Zealand during the 1920s and 1930s to some extent (i) ______ in both the United States and Britain, where new dance halls (ii) _______ in response to customer demand, although the rampant commercialization associated with larger populations in the United States was not so apparent in New Zealand.|
|When a new scientific discovery is discussed in a scientific paper or book, the process of discovery is often represented as something (i) ______ and almost (ii) __________. Unfortunately, science publishers simply do not have space for detailed descriptions of experiments that fail along with discussions of every false start and blind alley, elements that are associated with even quite (iii) ________ endeavors.|
|For decades, Pluto seemed to be the mysteriously _______ planet: it was first thought to be about as large as Earth, but, subsequently, measurements had it smaller and smaller.|
|Khirigsuurs, distinctive stone-mounded monuments, are so ________ in central and western Mongolia that it has been argued that they were the defining features of the human landscapes of prehistoric Inner Asia.|
|Some social insects, such as bees and ants, are celebrated for their industriousness and engineering feats, but popular culture has not generally ______ termites for theirs -even though they can build mounds twenty feet high.|
|The painter Fu Baoshi lived and worked through a tumultuous period in Chinese history, _________ by exceptional talent and a steely dedication to his art.|
|African American painter MaIvin Gray Johnson (1896-1934) grew up in urban environments, including New York City, but in 1934 visited and painted scenes from the small town of Brightwood, Virginia. Some critics have celebrated the Brightwood paintings, which depict a vibrant natural landscape and close-knit Black community, as Johnson's discovery of an "authentic" African American life in the rural South. This view, which reflects a common tendency to regard African American artists, imagery as unmediated documentation of direct experience, overlooks Johnson`s interpretive thinking. In truth. Johnson's conceptualization of the South was largely formed before he left New York, where he had studied the French expressionist Paul Cezanne. Johnson's Brightwood paintings reflect Cezanne's stylistic influence and tendency to present rural lite as an idyllic alternative to modern industrialism.|
|The primary purpose of the passage is to|
|The author suggests which of the following about "some critics" mentioned in the passage?|
The importance of the Bill of Rights in twentieth-century United States law and politics has led some historians to search for the original meaning" of its most controversial clauses. This approach, known as "originalism, " presumes that each right codified in the Bill of Rights had an independent history that can be studied in isolation from the histories of other rights, and its proponents ask how formulations of the Bill of Rights in 1791 reflected developments in specific areas of legal thinking at that time. Legal and constitutional historians, for example, have found originalism especially useful in the study of provisions of the Bill of rights that were innovative by eighteenth-century standards, such as the Fourth Amendment`s broadly termed protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures." Recent calls in the legal and political arena for a return to a "jurisprudence of original intention. "however, have made it a matter of much more than purely scholarly interest when originalists insist that a clause's true meaning was fixed at the moment of its adoption, or maintain that only those rights explicitly mentioned in the United States Constitution deserve constitutional recognition and protection. These two claims seemingly lend support to the notion that an interpreter must apply fixed definitions of a fixed number of rights to contemporary issues, for the claims imply that the central problem of rights in the Revolutionary era was to precisely identify, enumerate, and define those rights that Americans felt were crucial to protecting their liberty.
Both claims, however, are questionable from the perspective of a strictly historical inquiry, however sensible they may seem from the vantage point of contemporary jurisprudence. Even though originalists are correct in claiming that the search for original meaning is inherently historical, historians would not normally seek to determine exactly what a specific clause or right meant when the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791, because historians would not normally feel compelled to support attempts to make that "original meaning" binding today. The strictly historical purpose for an inquiry into the original meaning of specific rights would be to determine why a particular clause was adopted and to establish a baseline from which its subsequent evolution could be traced and evaluated.
Because of its proponents' pressing need to find determinate meaning at a fixed historical moment, originalism cannot capture everything that was dynamic and creative-thus uncertain and problematic-in Revolutionary constitutionalism, nor can it easily accommodate the diversity of views that explains why the debates of the Revolutionary era were so lively. A strictly historical approach, on the other hand. makes it clear that the framers and ratifiers of the Bill of Rights were struggling with complex questions, the novelty of which had carried them away from the received wisdom of their time and was forcing their ideas about rights and the protection of those rights to continually evolve.
|It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the Bill of Rights?|
|It can be inferred from the passage that a jurisprudence of original intention is based on which of the following assumptions about the Bill of Rights?|
|The passage suggests that a historian conducting a strictly historical inquiry would make which of the following assumptions when studying the Bill of rights?|
|Which of the following historical documents, if they existed, would most strengthen the author's characterization of Revolutionary constitutionalism?|