While studying different-sized ant colonies, Cole discovered that when there were only a few ants in the space provided, each individual exhibited a chaotic pattern of activity and rest. As the density of the colony increased by the addition of more ants, Cole observed a sudden transition to dynamic order: patterns of activity and rest over the colony as a whole suddenly changed from chaotic to rhythmic. Why should the density of ants play an apparently crucial role in the transition from chaotic to ordered behavior? Ants interact with one another, and an active ant encountering an inactive one will stimulate the latter into movement. At low densities there are few encounters, but at higher densities activity can spread like a contagion through the colony.
According to the passage, which of the following statements about ant interactions is true?
In the context in which it appears, "ordered" most nearly means
Before 1865, magazines created specifically for women in the United States targeted an elite class of readers. Relatively expensive, they carried little or no advertising and generally contained literary, etiquette, and fashion material. After 1865, readership increased significantly: literacy increased; innovations in printing allowed publication of hundreds of copies in a short time; an expanded railroad, improved roads, and a larger and cheaper postal service permitted more efficient and reliable distribution; and aggressive solicitation of advertisers allowed publishers to reduce prices of the magazines, which now focused on middle-class women. While the entertainment function of the earlier magazines persisted, as did advice columns and articles on cultural affairs and other nonfiction topics, women as consumers received increasing attention, particularly through the newly important ads.
According to the passage, which of the following was a feature common to women`s magazines published both before and after 1865?
It can be inferred that before 1865, the readership that women`s magazines could reach was restricted by which of the following factors?
Basic population biology demonstrates that widespread use of common nonspecific insecticides must inevitably exacerbate the very problems these insecticides were designed to solve because, in addition to killing "bad" insects (those that eat crops), these insecticides have a "side effect", they also kill "good" insects (those that prey on the bad insects) and indirectly reduce the good insects` birth rate. While insecticide use will decimate both populations equally, the bad insects will rebound much more quickly. In predator/prey systems, predators control the death rate of their prey by eating them, while the prey control the birth rate of their predators by providing nourishment. When population numbers of both decline, therefore, the prey`s death rate is dramatically reduced because there are many fewer predators, while the predators` birth rate is dramatically reduced because there is less food and it is harder to find. The birth rate of the prey is much less affected, and thus those insects feeding on crops are capable of rebounding first, then, in the resulting environment that is largely devoid of predators, they reach higher numbers than before.
According to the passage, one of the differences in the ways in which predator and prey insects are affected by the widespread use of common nonspecific insecticides is that
Which of the following most accurately describes the "side effect" mentioned in the passage
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most alleviate the "side effect"?
Pharmaceuticals imported into Bornland are inspected for quality to the extent that staff limitations permit. For the last few years, the proportion of shipments examined that have been found to be deficient has been consistently around 25 percent. This year, the number of inspectors and inspections was doubled, and only 21 percent of shipments inspected were found deficient. Clearly, therefore, the quality of pharmaceuticals being imported into Bornland has greatly improved.
The answer to which of the following would be most helpful in evaluating this argument?
The novel Georges, published under Alexander Dumas` name, may actually have been written by Felicien Mallefille. A comparison of Georges with well-known Dumas novels such as The Count of Monte Cristo suggests that Dumas had little to do with Georges. For example, Georges` characters are tiresomely earnest, while those from Dumas` well-known novels crack jokes and utter colorful oaths. Meanwhile, in a technical sense, Georges is well-written, while The Count of Monte Cristo, with all its verve and sparkle, is full of redundancies, repetitions, and non sequiturs. As Umberto Eco discovered while attempting to translate The Count of Monte Cristo, the charm of Dumas` novel and its "narrative wisdom" are inseparable from its "linguistically sludgy and gasping" prose.
The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Dumas as a novelist?
According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding the novel Georges?
Writings by Renaissance artists are often prized for the light they can shed on artists` lives and personalities. Despite their nearly equal life spans and impressive artistic output, Michelangelo, whose surviving writings are copious, is accessible in a way that Donatello is not. Other artists now less appreciated for their oeuvres, such as Cennino Cennini, are of greater value to modern historians for their written than for their painted output. The great paradox, however, is Leonardo da Vinci, who left thousands of pages of writing. These texts have been categorized for study, segmenting his body of writings into smaller groupings on subjects such as painting, science, anatomy, optics, and engineering. Yet despite the exhaustive application of this method, Leonardo, as an individual, remains thoroughly obscure.
The author introduces the subject of Leonardo da Vinci primarily in order to
Which of the following best characterizes the function of the highlighted sentence?
Aristotle (384-322 BC) was admired in the ancient world for the clarity of his style. Unfortunately, the writings that earned him this esteem have not survived. What we read today are not the books Aristotle prepared for publication, but lecture notes complied for his own use. These have one great advantage making no concessions to a lay readership, the Aristotelian works available to us are the ones that intellectually sophisticated commentators in late antiquity (A.D.300-600) found philosophically most rewarding. But they also have disadvantages. These texts were not designed for public consumption and are consequently often difficult to understand. The process by which they took their present form is unclear: in some cases there are signs of editorial activity either by Aristotle or by a later hand, so different versions of the same text may have been spliced together. In general their style is cryptic, condensed, and allusive, the Poetic , in particular, is frequently very obscure. This obscurity has created difficulties for later readers of Aristotle. The Poetics, though not widely known in antiquity, became extraordinarily influential beginning around 1500 in the Renaissance, especially among literary critics. Yet the text`s obscurities have left it open to conflicting interpretations. There are still fundamental disagreements about the meaning even of key concepts, such as katharsis.
The passage suggests which of the following about the "commentators"?
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