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Regarding the chemists who were "engaged in practical applications of their science", it can be inferred from the passage that in some cases they
The Musical Dice Game was published under the name of Mozart, the renowned composer, shortly after his death in 1791. The Dice Game consists of 176 numbered musical fragments, each three beats long, and instructions on how to compose short waltzes by ordering selected fragments according to the throw of the dice. Some music historians contend that the Dice Game was not authored by Mozart, correctly asserting that Mozart did not need to rely on such a system to compose music, but their view that Mozart was too creative to have used such a device is inappropriately based on a nineteenth-century Romantic concept of composers. In fact, Mozart loved puzzles and games, and equivalent fragments exist in his own handwriting. Moreover, countless music professionals contemporary with Mozart explored and promulgated new compositional methods. Indeed, nearly every prominent composer of Mozart`s day created a dice game. The triviality of the music produced by the Dice Game, however, strongly suggests that someone other than Mozart authored the game, basing it loosely on fragments discarded by Mozart.
The author mentions which of the following as evidence tending to undermine the claim that Mozart was the author of The Musical Dice Game?
Which of the following statements about Mozart and The musical Dice Game is most consistent with the view expressed by the author of the passage?
The author of the passage suggests that the view of the "music historians" concerning Mozart`s authorship of the game published under his name is based on
Availability and management of water greatly influenced human settlement in the Maya Lowlands, and much of Mayan social innovation was centered on storing excess water for times of need. In northern Yucatan the permanent water table is sufficiently shallow that it can be accessed by natural wells known as cenotes. However, over much of the Maya Lowlands, the water table is too deep to have been available to the Maya. In response, they constructed artificial reservoirs to trap runoff. For example, Gallopin estimates that the reservoirs at Tikal (an ancient Mayan city) could have provided for the domestic needs of about 9,600 people for a period of 6 to 18 months. Even with elaborate water capture and management systems, the Maya were greatly dependent upon adequate rainfall over much of their empire and were thus susceptible to frequent or prolonged droughts that approached or exceeded the capacity of their reservoirs. In fact, evidence of droughts in the region based on studies of lake and shallow ocean sediments has led many researchers to suspect that climate was responsible for the Classic Maya collapse.
The author mentions "studies of lake and shallow ocean sediments" primarily in order to
The passage suggests which of the following about the reservoirs at Tikal?
The passage suggests which of the following about cenotes?
A team of researchers has claimed that by drilling below the Earth`s surface, they have been able to recover microorganisms that inhabit depths where it was previously thought that no life existed. Although other microorganisms that were at first thought to have been recovered from these depths were later determined merely to have come from surface soil, that cannot be so in this case, because________.
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Competition from horse appears to have been a factor in historical wildlife distribution and abundance. In archaeological studies in the Columbia River basin in North America, horse bones have been found alongside bison bones, indicating that bison were still present in the Columbia Basin at the time horses appeared, that is, sometime after about 1720. Researchers hypothesize that the introduction of the horse eventually led to the extinction of bison in the Columbia Basin in two ways. First, the horse acted as a direct foraging competitor to the bison. Horse and bison diets have considerable overlap, and competition for forage may have been high as horse numbers increased over time. Second, the introduction of horses improved the hunting efficiency of the Native Americans.
In the context of the passage as a whole, the highlighted sentence serves to
According to the passage, which of the following statements about bison in the Columbian Basin is true?
While the history of the Earth`s moon is well understood, the origin of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, is still a mystery in spite of numerous space missions sent to Mars. One theory, based on striking similarities between the physical characteristics of the surfaces of Mars` moons and the surfaces of numerous objects in the asteroid belt, is that the Martian moons were formed far away from Mars and then captured by the planet`s gravitational attraction. However, this theory cannot account for the current near-equatorial and near-circular orbits of the moons. The fact that these orbits are consistent with expected orbits of objects accreted around Mars motivated some astrophysicists to propose instead that Phobos and Deimos were formed from a disk of debris in Mars` orbit.
The passage suggests that if the Martian moons were formed far away from Mars, it is likely that
According to the passage, "one theory" is motivated by
Spiders of the species Argiope build distinctive zig-zag patterns, called stabilimenta, into their webs. Recent research has established that Argiope spiders use stabilimenta to collect drinking water. This discovery, far from discrediting the long-standing hypothesis that stabilimenta serve to reinforce the webs, actually supports that hypothesis since________.
Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the argument?
While studying different-sized ant colonies, Cole discovered that when there were only a few ants in the space provided, each individual exhibited a chaotic pattern of activity and rest. As the density of the colony increased by the addition of more ants, Cole observed a sudden transition to dynamic order: patterns of activity and rest over the colony as a whole suddenly changed from chaotic to rhythmic. Why should the density of ants play an apparently crucial role in the transition from chaotic to ordered behavior? Ants interact with one another, and an active ant encountering an inactive one will stimulate the latter into movement. At low densities there are few encounters, but at higher densities activity can spread like a contagion through the colony.
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