|Julie Roy Jeffrey`s recent book The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism shows how women participated in all aspects of the antislavery movement in the United States, from its inception in the early 1830s through the end of the Civil War (1861-1865). While scholars have already pointed out the importance of women`s work in early abolitionist circles, especially in spreading a grassroots antislavery message through the constant and tireless circulation of petitions, Jeffery disputes certain aspects of the traditional account of their participation. For example, even though the abolitionist movement split into political and nonpolitical wings at the end of the 1830s and women were largely relegated to the less politicized faction, Jeffrey does not accept the view that women`s participation became marginalized as a result. She demonstrates that women found numerous ways to persist effectively in the cause, such as by organizing the antislavery fundraising fairs of the 1840s. She also disputes the notion that African American women were relegated to secondary positions in the largely White movement. Their own abolitionist societies, she argues, often responded to the crises of the pre-Civil War decades, such as the Fugitive Slave Law, more directly than did integrated abolitionist groups.|
|The passage is primarily concerned with|
|Which of the following is cited by the "scholars" as an example of the important work done by early abolitionist women?|
|The author mentions the "fund-raising fairs of the 1840s" primarily in order to|
|Since many people form their opinions about the value of carnivore conservation programs based on accounts of human encounters with carnivores, it seems likely that negative interactions between humans and coyotes in northeastern North America would decrease public support for programs such as the reintroduction of wolves to the region. At the same time, coyotes are commonly, though not necessarily correctly, credited with lowering the density of the deer population in parts of the region. This perception also decreases public support for wolf reintroduction because it suggests that additional predators are unnecessary for controlling populations of prey species. Thus, while coyotes are by no means threatened with extinction, they do represent a significant conservation issue in northeastern North America.|
|According to the passage, which of the following is true of the public`s perception of coyotes?|
|In the context in which it appears, "controlling" most nearly means|
|Why does Mars have such a thin atmosphere? Scientists have long hypothesized that chemical reactions among water, carbon dioxide, and rock turned the original thick Martian atmosphere into carbonate mineral solids. The carbonates were never recycled back into carbon dioxide gas because Mars, being so small, cooled quickly and its volcanoes---which might have released dissolved gases back into the atmosphere---stopped erupting. However, so far only a single small area of carbonate rock has been found on Mars, and this outcrop probably formed in warm subsurface waters. Moreover, the carbonate theory offers no explanation for why Mars has so little nitrogen or noble gases. Escape provides a better answer. The atmosphere did not get locked away as rock, it dissipated into space.|
|Based on the passage, the author would agree that if the hypothesis mentioned in the highlighted sentence was true, then which of the following would also probably be true?|
|Volcanoes on Mars are important to the issue addressed by the passage primarily for which reason?|
|Globally, the combination of reforestation and afforestation activities could reduce atmosphere CO2 concentrations by as much as 30 parts per million (ppm) this century. However, this potential mitigation is limited by many factors. One is the vulnerability of forests to increased disturbances, including those caused by pathogens, droughts, fires, and storms. For example, the mountain pine beetle is projected to convert 374,000 square kilometers (km2) of pine forest from a small net carbon sink to a large carbon source in Alberta alone, liberating 1 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere. Climate change is another factor that could limit the potential for carbon sequestration in forests. The mountain pine beetle in Alberta is thriving in part because of warmer minimum temperatures in the winter and warmer and drier summers. A third potential limitation is landowner behavior in private-sector forestry, including decisions on what species to plant and how intensely to manage forests. Private forestry competes economically with agriculture, urban development, and other land uses. Landowner decisions will therefore dictate the success of some climate policy efforts.|
|The primary purpose of the passage is to|
|The author mention "agriculture" in order to|
|The passage suggests which of the following about Alberta?|
|Gender socialization theory argues that learned gender stereotypes influence workers` preferences for particular job attributes: men acquire the breadwinner role while women acquire the homemaker role, and workers therefore prefer job attributes related to these gender roles. Earlier research provides some support for this theory. From the 1930s to the mid-1980s, studies documented significant differences between men`s and women`s job attribute preferences: men preferred earnings, advancement, and job security more than women did, whereas women valued coworker relationships and flexible work hours compatible with family responsibilities. However, recent research has cast doubt on this explanation. Heckert found that although women rated job conditions such as flexible work hours higher than did men, there were no significant gender differences in workers` attitudes toward pay or factors related to promotions.|
|The author suggests which of the following about Heckert`s It cast doubt on gender socialization theory by undermining the view that gender roles are acquired through social conditioning.research?|
|It can be inferred from the passage that "earlier research" different from Heckert`s research in that the "earlier research"|
Until the French Revolution of 1789 and the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, chemistry in European universities had generally led a marginal existence. Most university teachers of chemistry were there to provide a service for students of medicine and pharmacy. The number of significant research chemists could be reckoned as a few dozen internationally, and, with the partial exceptions of France and Germany, it made little or no sense to talk about national chemical communities. There were distinguished professors, for example, Hermann Boerhaave in the Netherlands at the beginning of the eighteenth century and Joseph Black in Edinburgh at the end of that century. For the most part, however, university chairs in chemistry were few and had little prestige. Chemistry, unlike medicine, did not constitute a profession in its own right.
There were industries that were based on the application of chemistry, but most of these depended on a traditional mixture of ingredients: entrepreneurial skill, recipes that had been found to work, and the tactile expertise of the practitioner rather than the theoretical insights of the academic chemist. Chemists were of course engaged in practical applications of their science. In the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, members of the Academy functioned in part as a scientific civil service and bent their energies to solving problems of water quality, street lighting, sewage disposal, and more. The French Enlightenment`s great Encyclopedia was directly concerned with learning from the practice of artisans, and thereby both enriching theoretical understanding and improving craft and industrial practice. Joseph Black advised the masters of ironworks, Swedish chemists became expert mineralogists and consultants to the mining industry, and military chemists worked in many nations on the improvement of gunpowder. But in every one of these cases, chemistry was a tool, a servant not a master, in the view of patrons and the public if not in the view of the chemists themselves.
Chemistry lacked prestige, and chemists often worked in isolation, with little recognition from the wider community of science. Newtonian physics and astronomy were the model sciences for the eighteenth century. Many shared the great eighteenth-century philosopher Immanuel Kant`s view that chemistry was incapable of becoming a science and could never be more than a kind of systematic natural history, an organized compilation of facts derived from experiment and observation. Chemistry---socially, professionally, economically, and scientifically---was a poor relative in the hierarchical family of the sciences.
|The author mentions Hermann Boerhaave as a|
|Which of the following statements about chemistry in eighteenth century universities can be inferred from the passage?|