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W.E.B. Du Bois exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.
The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?
The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?
Favorable environments do not necessarily lead to the occurrence of plant cultivation. South China is warmer and moister than North China and the Yangtze Basin, with wild rice and highly abundant natural resources. Yet archaeological data indicate that cereal cultivation did not occur in this region until approximately 7,000 to 6,500 years ago. This cultivation was likely a result of cultural contact with and expansion from the Yangtze Basin. Clearly, environmental factors were important for the occurrence of cultivation in China, but were not the absolute determining factors. While incipient cultivation might occur in areas of relatively abundant resources, it may not occur in areas of very abundant resources, such as South China, where foraging might be a more efficient way of life.
The author implies which of the following about natural resources in South China prior to 6,500 years ago?
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about plant cultivation in the Yangtze Basin?
Wildcats are improbable candidates for domestication. Like all felids [cats], wildcats are obligate carnivores, meaning they have a limited metabolic ability to digest anything except proteins. Wildcats live a solitary existence and defend exclusive territories, making them more attached to places than to people. Furthermore, cats do not perform directed tasks and their actual utility is debatable; even as mousers, in this latter role, terrier dogs and ferrets are preferable. Accordingly, there is little reason to believe an early agricultural community would have sought out and selected the wildcat as a house pet. Rather, the best inference is that wildcats exploiting human environments were simply tolerated by people and, over time and space, they gradually diverged from their "wild" relatives.
The author would most likely agree that in early agricultural communities cats would have been
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole
George Milner cites three primary problems with the labeling of Cahokia, the large archaeological site by the Mississippi River, as a state rather than a chiefdom. First, finds at Cahokia are essentially similar to finds at other Mississippian chiefdoms, except that the amount of earth moved in building the mounds at Cahokia was greater than elsewhere. Second, fewer people lived at Cahokia than is commonly estimated (Milner estimates that there were only a few thousand inhabitants, more common estimates are 10,000 or 20,000 inhabitants); therefore, extensive taxes, trade, and tribute were not necessary to support them. Finally, while there is evidence of extensive earth movement, craftwork, trade, and elite at Cahokia, this does not indicate that Cahokia was politically centralized, economically specialized, or aggressively expansionistic.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
The passage implies that political centralization is a feature that
Ecologists had assumed that trees in the consistently warm tropics grew at a slow but steady rate, unvarying from year to year. However, a study at La Selva, Costa Rica, showed that trees grew less in hotter years and more in cooler ones: between 1984 and 2000, dramatic differences occurred in the six species of trees studies, with trees adding twice as much wood in some cooler years as they did in the scorching El Nino year of 1997-1998. Because tree growth is an index of the balance between photosynthesis, in which trees absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and release oxygen, and respiration, in which the opposite occurs, the La Selva data were the first hint that rapidly rising global temperatures, driven by human-generated emissions of CO2, may be pushing tropical forests to release more CO2, thereby intensifying global warming. This raised serious questions about a popular theory that tropical forests act as a sponge, soaking up much of the excess CO2 that humans pump into the atmosphere. The La Selva data are consistent with a model of global CO2 flux developed by Keeling, who concluded that the amount of CO2 taken up in tropical landmasses rose in cooler years and fell in hotter ones, accounting for year-to-year changes in the amount of CO2 that stays in the atmosphere.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
The passage supports which of the following statements about the trees in the La Selva study?
The passage suggests that as temperatures rise, trees in the tropical regions
In the 2,000-year period immediately before European contact, many native groups of the Northern Plains of North America specialized in big-game hunting, subsisting primarily on bison. Bison routinely became fat-depleted in the spring, reducing their nutritional value, yet these groups did not supplement their diets with the nutritious, fat-rich fish that were abundantly available. Malainey et al. find a possible explanation in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth century accounts from three frontiersmen who had adapted to lean-meat diets during extended periods in the plains. Each had an opportunity to consume fish after extended meat dependence and upon eating it, became weak and ill. Malainey notes that prolonged lean meat dependence renders the body incapable of digesting lipids (fats), perhaps explaining native hunters fish avoidance.
The author of the passage mentions accounts from three white frontiersmen primarily in order to
Select the sentence that describes the phenomenon that the passage is concerned with finding an explanation for.
Click on the sentence in the passage that speculates about the effect of human intervention on an observation.
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