Approximately how many minutes would it take on aircraft D to fly from Los Angeles to Dallas flying at cruising speed?
Initially, scientists suspected a high dietary calcium intake of increasing the risk of kidney stones. A high intake of calcium, however, reduces the urinary excretion of oxalate, which is thought to lower the risk. Therefore, the concept that a higher dietary calcium intake increases the risk of kidney stones, and the mechanism underlying their formation, required examination. Stanford researchers studied the relationship between dietary calcium intake and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones in a cohort of 35,119 men 40 to 75 years old who had no history of kidney stones. Dietary calcium was measured by means of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1998. During four years of follow-up, 535 cases of kidney stones were documented by LifeWork analysts. After adjustment for age, dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the risk of stones; in fact, a high calcium intake decreased the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Surprisingly, intake of animal protein was directly associated with the risk of stone formation.
The passage provides information on each of the following EXCEPT
Order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of people of nominal-some even say symbolic-importance, practiced by sundry organizations and governments. One's position in an order of precedence does not unequivocally indicate one's responsibilities; rather, it reflects ceremonial or historic relevance; for instance, order of precedence may dictate where a host seats dignitaries at formal diners. Moreover, order of precedence potentially determines the order of succession for heads of state removed from office or incapacitated, although the two terms are not often interchangeable. Universities and the professions frequently have their own rules of precedence, applied parochially and based on professional rank, with each rank being ordered within itself by seniority, meaning the date one attains that rank.
The author of this passage would agree with which of the following statements about order of precedence:
In Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen rejects and satirizes English Jacobin political Gothicism. In the unfamiliar setting of Northanger Abbey, Catherine makes many dramatic mistakes in interpretation. Lacking the worldly experience to chasten and direct her subjective, "natural" sympathies and imagination, she relies on what she has learned in reading novels and interprets her present world as if it were a Gothic romance: Catherine sees General Tilney as a tyrant and Northanger Abbey as a facade for secret horrors. Catherine's suitor and Tilney's son, Henry, recognizes her error and reminds her of the current social and political reality, his speech asserting a particular view of the present constitution of Britain and thus of British society. Critic Goldstein found it characteristic of Austen's disregard of novelistic excess that Henry's perception of Catherine's error does not diminish the value of her character in his eyes, nor lead him to reject her as a prospective wife-which would be too indicative of a mere Gothic novel.
Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
Our system of justice is based on the ideal that our judges are principled, objective, and nonpartisan. But let's consider the infrequent "bad apple" among judges. Historian Brewer contends that corrupt judges are no more prevalent today than they were in the past 240 years. Jergens, nevertheless, asserts that the current threat to judiciary independence rivals any other in history, primarily due to the influences of (she persuasively argues) money, fundamentalist ideology and special interests. Laine specifies that an influx of money into the judicial system has influenced the election process: The United States Chamber of Commerce, a conservative group, has spent $50 million on judicial races since 1998. That faction is playing a coercive role in approximately 50% of current judicial races.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
It is imperative that rice fields are flooded at the proper time. Rice will grow less productively if flooded before reaching 4 inches. Flooding should begin when the rice reaches a height of 4 to 6 inches. Floodwaters will then provide a favorable environment for rice growth, help control weeds and stabilize soil ammonium nitrogen. In order to aid weed control of both broadleaf and grass, and to reduce nitrogen losses, establish the first flood within 3 to 5 days after pre-flood nitrogen applications. The depth of the flood is as important as its timing. The flood should be no deeper than 6 inches; deeper water interferes with proper tillering of rice. Generally, a 2-inch flood on the upgrade side will prevent too-deep water if the levees were properly surveyed.
In the passage, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
The vote to demote Pluto from the status of planet was made by only 5% of astronomers, a fact lending force to the opposition's stance. The original intention of the summit was to preserve Pluto as the ninth planet, but the definition supporting that decision would also regulate that a number of other bodies in space be considered as planets, and thus, it was considered false. The resolution came a little over a week later stating that Pluto is, in fact, in a class of dwarf planets. Brown contends that dwarf planets are outside the scope of what defines a planet. He also believes that hundreds of dwarf planets exist that are yet unrecognized.But the term dwarf planet is confusing if the celestial body being referred to is not a planet. Gingerich believes this to be true and hopes that public opinion and further investigating will overturn the demotion.
The author's primary purpose in the passage is to
The accusation that a particular critical remark is "irrelevant" to its object is one of the most frequently heard in discussion and debate among critics. Frequently heard because frequently correct: there has never been a dearth of criticism that carelessly relates a work to an artist's biography, or employs pointless historic speculation, or invokes inappropriate creative standards, or describes the critic's own fuzzy reveries to misdirect our attention and obscure the essential significance of the object before us. Relevance and precision are critical to criticism. This fact underscores our concern to find a correct method for doing criticism, a concern that has generated more controversy than any single commentator might hope to obfuscate with footnotes.
The passage suggests that the author would agree with which of the following statements?
Declassification of government documents has shed new light on the events comprising the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. Prior to the accessibility of these records, the only sources of account of the Crisis for scholars and historians were the personal memoirs and narratives of the officials who served under Kennedy and Khrushchev during this period. Many of the declassified documents are transcriptions and notes of meetings between members of the CIA and President Kennedy's cabinet, as well the president himself. The revelations in these documents have demonstrated the inadvertent inaccuracies and intended obscurities inherent in the first-person narratives of the Crisis and have aided historians from all three countries involved in the Crisis to get a more authentic representation of what truly transpired, and for what reasons. Of perhaps the most interest to historians are declassified correspondences between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev that challenge the idea that the height of the Crisis extended only over the course of thirteen days. Indeed, these letters indicate that the Crisis was far from resolved by Khrushchev's October 28 decision to withdraw the Soviet missiles from Cuba; instead it endured far into the following month, while America slept fitfully under the illusion of peace.
The author is mainly concerned with
Two of the most revered poets in American history, Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson, are seemingly a study in contrast. But the nature in which both nineteenth-century poets chose to lead their lives, which has deceivingly set them apart in the eyes of many historians, is actually their greatest similarity. Whitman's energetic wanderings around the United States and his informal, inquisitive disposition were directly reflected in his style of verse and subject matter. He was a self-proclaimed man of the people, larger than life, interested in breaking down social preconceptions and boundaries, using his explorations of reality and the world at large in an attempt to translate the language of the universal soul. As he was open to the world, so was his style of poetry; rambling and unconstrained, yet accessible. While Whitman's style was a mirror of his external forays, Emily Dickinson's travels into the dark inner realms echoed throughout her writings. Where Whitman blazed an ample path for the masses, the introspective Dickinson beckoned them to get lost in her spare verse. Deftly picking and choosing her words, her vivid, aphoristic style was the distillation of a life spent in solitary contemplation and experimentation with form. The common bond shared between Whitman and Dickinson was each poet's obsessive drive for self-discovery. Though both poets' explorations into meaning took them on two very different journeys, the courage required for those personal voyages was tantamount, and the resulting work was an unconventional brilliance that still exerts its influence upon American poetry to this day.
The majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists worked hard to convince their compatriots that the changes they advocated were not revolutionary. Far from undermining the accepted distribution of power, their reforms would eliminate deviations from the democratic principle upon which it was based. Non-Garrisonian abolitionists repeatedly disavowed miscegenation and revolutionary intentions. As for the suffragists, despite the presence in the movement of socialists, and in the final years of a few blacks, immigrants, and workers, the racism and nativism in the movement's thinking were not an aberration and did not conflict with the movement's objective of suffrage. Far from saying, as presentist historians do, that the white abolitionists and suffragists compromised the abiding principles of equality and the equal right of all to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, just the opposite is suggested: the non-Garrisonian majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists showed what those principles meant in their respective generations, because they traced the farthest acceptable boundaries around them.
Martha Graham is remembered in the dance community as a pioneer of modern dance choreography. However, it was her desire to live on as a dancer. She danced first as a member of the Denishawn Company, put on solo performances in New York, and later danced at Radio City Music Hall. She gave lessons in movement and modeled coats to fund her own dance company. It was with this company that her eclectic and radical technique made its mark on modern dance history.

Graham was by no means the first dancer to deviate from the strict classical ballet techniques of the early 20th century. Many young American women were also making their own variations to the standard dance style. But Graham's alterations of sharp, jagged movements and sweeping floor work reformed the whole of modern dance theory and the very notion of what a dancer was. Her signature style continues to permeate the work of contemporary dance and influence modern choreographers, although some, such as Taylor and Cunningham, both former members of Graham's company, have disowned her intense manner of teaching and technique.


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