In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive volcano, seemingly disappeared overnight as an eruption rent the entire island apart, catapulting rock and debris into the atmosphere. For the next years, as ash circled the entire globe, the average world temperature dropped by several degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, an eruption of similar power in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.
Which of the following, if true, best challenges the main claim of the argument?
The waters off the coast of Iceland are filled with pods of killer whales, which migrate there during the summer. Wildlife parks that rely on the killer whales for entertainment hunt the killer whale almost exclusively in the water of Iceland, because strict sanctions forbid them from doing so off the coast of North America, an area also abundant in killer whales. Since Iceland recently gave into pressure from international groups opposed to the hunting of killer whales, it too will forbid the hunting of killer whales off its coast. Therefore, all wildlife parks will be forced to end their shows featuring killer whales once their current killer whales are unable to perform.
All of the following cast doubt on the conclusion of the argument EXCEPT?
The problem with treating the five-paragraph essay form as a relatively benign aid to clarity is that like any habit it is very hard to break. Students who can not break the habit remain handicapped because five-paragraph form runs counter to virtually all of the values and attitudes that they need in order to grow as writers and thinkers-such as respect for complexity, tolerance of uncertainty, and the willingness to test and complicate rather than just assert ideas. The form actually discourages thinking by conditioning writers to be afraid of looking closely at evidence. If they look too closely, they might find something that does not fit, at which point the prefabricated organizational scheme falls apart. But it is precisely the something-that-doesn`t-seem-to-fit, the thing writers call a"complication"that triggers good ideas.
The author objects to the five-paragraph essay as a means of instilling certain positive writing habits on the grounds that it does which of the following?
Vladimir Nabokov, the scientist and the author have been treated as discrete manifestations of a prodigious and probing mind, until now. In her recent biography on Nabokov, Temoshotka makes the bold assertion that these two apparently disparate realms of Nabokov`s polymorphous genius were not so unrelated after all. While Temoshotka cannot be faulted for the boldness of her thesis-Nabokov`s hobby as a lepidopterist (a butterfly collector) and his experience as a novelist informed each other-she fails to make a convincing case. Surely, with enough ingenuity, one can find parallels, as Temoshotka does, between the creative products of Nabokov the naturalist and Nabokov the writer: the intricate butterfly wings that he pored over in his laboratory and the intricate prose that he crafted with sedulous care. But to say the prose of?Lolita?and?Speak Memory?would not have coalesced into their current incarnations had Nabokov`s hobby been, say, lawn tennis is simply reaching too far.
According to the author of the passage, Temoshotka, in her estimation of Nabokov, does which of the following?
Was T.S. Eliot a great letter writer? Not on the evidence gathered in a recently emerged folio of letters penned during his tenure as the chief editor of?Criterion, a once popular literary publication. Although we are offered a vivid picture of the single-handed daily management of a high-minded literary magazine, few of the?Criterion?letters are riveting or revelatory, and they are couched in a scrupulously courteous register that becomes wearisome when read in quantity. But the dazzling roster of correspondents makes even the most humdrum exchanges of interest. The big names - Wyndham Lewis, Ezra Pound, Virginia Woolf and W B Yeats - are well represented, along with an illustrious cast of literary worthies from Auden (his first appearance in the letters being a courteous rejection note) to Gertrude Stein (another rejection, rather less courteous), Robert Graves (a quarrel) and Thomas McGreevy, Criterion contributor and close friend of Samuel Beckett, whose recently published letters vie with Eliot's as essential purchases for anyone with an interest in modern writing
In the context in which it appears"register"most nearly means
What little scholarship has existed on Ernest Hemingway--considering his stature--has focused on trying to unmask the man behind the bravura. Ultimately, most of these works have done little more than to show that Hemingway the myth and Hemingway the man were not too dissimilar (Hemingway lived to hunt big game so should we be surprised at his virility, not to mention that of many of the author`s--chiefly male--protagonists?). In the last few years, several biographies have reversed this trend, focusing on Hemingway near the end of his life: isolated and paranoid, the author imagined the government was chasing him (he was not completely wrong on this account). Ironically, the hunter had become the hunted, and in that sense, these latest biographers have provided--perhaps unwittingly--the most human portrait of the writer yet.
With which of the following would the author of the passage agree?
There has always been controversy over the nature of poetic language. To some, poetic language should be special, removed from the language of everyday (thus, the dictum, `The language of the age is never the language of poetry`). To others, it should be closely in touch with everyday, or, perhaps, be `current language heightened.`

To Ralph Waldo Emerson, the whole language is in any case `fossil poetry.` Statements of this kind to some extent miss the point, which is to stress the enormous range of linguistic expression that is found under the heading poetry. At one extreme, there are poems that are as far removed from everyday speech as it is possible to imagine; at the other, there are poems that, if it were not for the division into lines, would closely resemble prose.
It can be inferred from Emerson`s quote that he implied which of the following?
Montaigne`s pursuit of the character he called Myself-"bashful, insolent; chaste, lustful; prating, silent; laborious, delicate; knowing, ignorant"-lasted for twenty years and produced more than a thousand pages of observation and revision. When he died, he was still revising and, apparently, not at all surprised, since Myself was a protean creature, impossible to anticipate but also, being always at hand, impossible to ignore.

I like to think of the essays as a kind of thriller; with Myself, the elusive prey, and Montaigne, the sleuth, locked in a battle of equals who were too close for dissimulation and too smart for satisfaction. And it may be that Montaigne did, too, because he often warned his readers that nothing he wrote about Myself was likely to apply for much longer than it took the ink he used, writing it, to dry.
Montaigne`s relationship to"Myself"is most similar to that of
If you look out from an empty field into a dark sky, you will get the impression that you are standing on a flat plate, enclosed by a giant dome. Depth perception fails us for the distant objects we see in the sky. This creates the appearance that all of the stars have the same distance. The stars all appear to move together across the sky during the night, rising in the east and setting in the west, as if they are affixed to the inside of the dome.

Because of this phenomenon, many ancient civilizations believed that a dome really did enclose the Earth. Only a few centuries ago astronomers realized that the stars are actually very far away, scattered throughout the Milky Way Galaxy, rather than attached to the inside of a vast sphere. The old idea remains useful, however. The concept of the celestial sphere provides a simple way of thinking about the appearance of the stars from Earth without the complication of a realistic model of the universe.
Which of the following are consistent with a principle elucidated upon in the passage above?
The American colonists were less interested in maple syrup than in granular sugar. The pure, white, crystallized product of sugar cane was still an expensive luxury, imported from plantations in the West Indies. Maple sugar offered an accessible and affordable substitute.?These colonists, out on the imperial periphery, wanted to demonstrate that their fledgling society was just as sophisticated and elegant as that of England. They took the concentrated maple sap and poured it into conical molds, refining it into white sugar-loaves like those produced in Britain from cane syrup.?Maple sugar, a distinctively American product, was touted as the equal of the sugar served in the most elegant Old World salons. The clearest syrups and whitest sugars, which betrayed the least hint of their rustic origins, commanded premium prices.
Which of the following is best supported by the passage?
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