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The term "revolution" has been reserved by most historians for social upheaval characterized by bloodshed, the use of force, and great technological change. Historian Robert Cornwall cogently argues that the term can be extended to apply to the massive agricultural transformation that took place in the mid- to late-eighteenth century.

Farming practices in the 1700s were largely unchanged from those in the preceding centuries: Hordes of peasants labored on the land for long hours with only meager crop yields to show for their hard work. The eighteenth century brought improved transportation, progress in animal breeding, new crops, and better farming techniques, all of which served to increase the overall crop yield. However, the greatest impact on English agricultural yields may well have come from the significant expansion of enclosure. Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, farming was a communal activity in which the entire village decided what, where, and when to plant. To combat soil exhaustion, farmers were required to leave a field fallow every third year, a practice which led to massive inefficiencies. The practice of enclosure allowed farmers to maintain a better balance between arable land and pasture. Land that was worn out could be converted to grazing land for cattle, thus enriching and restoring it.

To move beyond subsistence-level farming, new ways to transport excess crops to market had to be found. The development of canal systems as well as an expanded and improved roadway system facilitated transportation.
The passage suggests that which of the following needed to take place in order for the agricultural revolution to take hold?
Echinosorex gymnura, known colloquially as the moon rat or gymnure, is one of the many fascinating creatures that inhabit the jungles of Southeast Asia. A close relative of the hedgehog, the moon rat likewise belongs to the order Insectivora and the family Erinaceidae. However, the family then splits into the sub-family Hylomyinae, which contains three separate genera and eight distinct species. The appearance and habitat of the moon rat are actually far more similar to those of various members of the order Rodentia, though its eating habits are more in line with its fellow insectivores. Ultimately, the taxonomic classification of this animal is useful only when considered along with other information regarding the animals ecological niche.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

Which of the following scenarios demonstrates the idea put forth by the author of this passage regarding animal classification?
Chinua Achebes masterpiece Things Fall Apart was borne out of Achebes frustration at the manner in which African nations had, up until then, been portrayed in European novels. The book tells of Christian missionaries to Nigeria who disrupt traditional Igbo life, thereby driving the protagonist Oknokwo, a village elder, to suicide.

Achebes book gained him instant recognition. Critics rightly praised the books vivid accounts of tribal beliefs and culture, and commended Achebes inclusion of Igbo proverbs. He was recognized not only as a historian, but also as a novelist whose work could be likened to that of a Greek tragedy.

However, not all critical views of Achebes work were laudatory. Some critics felt that Achebes novel placed undue blame on the colonialists. These critics argued that Achebe`s portrayal did not show adequate gratitude for the introduction of Western culture and technology.
The word laudatory, as used in the passage, could most effectively be replaced with which of the following?
The six New England states are ranked by population in Year X and in Year Y. How many states had a different ranking from Year X to Year Y ?

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