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Argument中文提纲 3

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Argument中文提纲 3 收藏 纠错

作者: 发布时间:2021-10-19

48     (社会/提议/先并列后递进)Thefollowing appeared in a memo from a budget planner for the City ofGrandview. 

\"To avoid a budget deficit next year, theCity of Grandview must(6) eliminate its funding for the

Grandview Symphony. Our citizensare well aware of the fact that while the Grandview Symphony Orchestra wasstruggling to succeed, our city government promised annual funding to helpsupport its programs. Last year, however, private contributions to theSymphony increased by 200 percent(1), and attendance at the Symphony\'sconcerts-in-the-park series doubled(2,3). The Symphony has also announced anincrease in ticket prices for next year(4). Suchdevelopments indicate that the Symphony can now succeed without funding fromcity government and we can eliminate that expense from next year\'s budget. Thisaction will surely prevent a budget deficit(5).\" ★★★

1.     We do not know the base amountof private contributions to the Symphony the year before last, thus we cannotevaluate if the contributions were significant. (V.D) ★★★★

2.     The fact that attendance at theconcert series doubled does not necessarily indicate that the Symphony isoperating successfully. (U.C) ★★★

3.     The facts cited by the planner,including the increased private contributions, popularity of concert series,may not recur in the following years. (P→F)★★★★

4.     The planner does not inform ushow much will the ticket prices actually increase. (I.I) ★★ 5.Eliminatingthe funding for the Symphony alone may not prevent a budget deficitsufficiently. (sufficiency of thesolution) ★★★★

Other measures couldalso be taken to prevent a budget d eficit. (necessityof a solution) ★★★ 62  

63    (儿童,体育/提议/并列)The followingappeared in a letter to the editor of the Parkville Daily Newspaper.

\"Throughoutthe country(1) last year, as more and more children below the age of nineparticipated in youth-league softball and soccer(10), over 80,000 of theseyoung players(2) suffered injuries(3,4,5). When interviewed for a recent study,youth-league softball players(6) in several major cities also reportedpsychological pressure(7) from coaches and parents to win games. Furthermore,education experts say that long practice sessions for these sports take awaytime that could be used for academic activities(8,9). Since the disadvantages apparently outweigh any advantages(11), wein Parkville should discontinue organized athletic competition(10) for childrenunder nine.\" ★★

1.     The fact that many youngplayers suffered injuries throughout the country does not necessarily indicatethat Parkville should discontinue athletic competition. (C.S) ★★★

2.     Without the total number ofchildren who participated in the competitions we could not evaluate thesituation. (V.D) ★★★

3.     The author does notdifferentiate the severity of injuries. (I.I)★★★

4.     We need to know how about theinjury-rate of those young players compared with children who do notparticipate in these games. (lack ofcontrolled experiment) ★★★

5.     We do not know the rate ofinjuries before children participated in these games, thus could not evaluateif the situation are getting worse. (confusingcomparison and variation) ★★

6.     The players in the recent studymight not be representative of all young players. (are the respondents representative?) ★★★★

7.     The young players at Parkvillemay not necessarily also suffer psychological pressure as the players do inthose major cities. (C.S) ★★★★

8.     The author unfairly assumesthat children would use the time for academic activities if they did not takepart in those games. (U.A) ★★★

9.     No information about theacademic performance of the children who participated in youth-leagues isprovided, thus we could not judge if we need to discontinue athleticcompetition to guarantee more academic activities for these students. (I.I/necessity of the solution) ★★

10.  The fact that many children were injured in softball and soccergames does not indicate that we should discontinue all other athleticcompetitions. (C.S) ★★★★★

11.  The author fails to consider the positive effects of athleticcompetition. (adv:disadv) ★★★

64    (艺术,考古/推测,预言/递进)Collectors prize the ancient life-sizeclay statues of human figuresmade on Kali Island but have long wondered howthe Kalinese artists were able to depict bodies with such realistic precision.Since archeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands onKali(1), we can now conclude that theancient Kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools andtechniques, to create these statues(2,3). This discovery explains why Kalinese miniature statues were abstractand entirely different in style: molds could only be used for life-sizesculptures(4). It also explains whyfew ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found(5). In light of thisdevelopment, collectors should expect the life-size sculptures to decrease invalue and the miniatures to increase in value(6). ★★★★

1.     The recently discovered moldsof human heads and hands are not necessarily used by Kalinese artists forsculpting. (U.A) ★★★★

2.     Granted those molds were usedfor sculpture purpose, we cannot hastily conclude that Kalinese artist also usemolds to create all life-size statues.(H.G) ★★★★

3.     No sufficient evidence isprovided to prove that Kalinese artists did not use any sculpting tools andtechniques to create life-size statues. (I.E)★★★

4.     Other possible factors wouldalso lead to the differences between miniature statues and life-size statures. (F.A) ★★★★

5.     Alternative explanation couldalso explain why few ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found. (NCR) ★★★

6.     The author’s assumption thatthe life-size sculptures will decrease in value and the miniatures to increasein value is unwarranted. (U.A) ★★★★

65    (社会/对策/大递进小对比)When Stanley Park first opened, it was thelargest, most heavily used

park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is nolonger heavily used. Video cameras mounted in the park\'s parking lots lastmonth(2) revealed the park\'s drop in popularity: the recordings showed anaverage of only 50 cars per day(1,3). In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in theheart of the business district is visited by more than 150 people on a typicalweekday(4). An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park,provides ample seating(5). Thus, ifStanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as is Carlton Park, thetown will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some ofthe unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing(6). ★★★43

1.     The number of cars at the park’sparking lots may not be a good indication of the park’s popularity. (U.C) ★★★★

2.     There may be some specialreasons last month that resulted in the dropped popularity of Stanley Park. (selective sample) ★★★★

3.     The author does not provideinformation concerning the number of visitors at Stanley before the cameraswere mounted. (confusing comparison withvariation) ★★★

4.     Many other differences mayrender the two parks not comparable. (I.C)★★★

5.     The author fails to convince usthat it is the ample seating that makes Carlton so popular. (NCR)

★★★★

6.     The author fails to considerthe possible negative effects of converting unused open areas into publicsocial spaces. (adv:disadv) ★★★

66    (商业/决策/并列)The followingappeared in a memo from the president of a chain of cheese stores locatedthroughout the United States.

\"For many years all the stores in our chain havestocked a wide variety of both domestic and imported cheeses. Last year(1),however, the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store(2) were all domesticcheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey by Cheeses of theWorld magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses amongits subscribers(3). Since our companycan reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way(4) to improveprofits(6) in all of our stores is to discontinue stocking many of ourvarieties of imported cheese(5) and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses.\"★★★

1.     The situation last year may beunusual, it does not indicate that domestic cheddar cheeses will also bepopular in the future. (P→F) ★★★

2.     The situation at the neweststore might not be representative of all stores. (selective sample/C.S)

★★★★

3.     The president does not provideany information about the subscribers of Cheese of the World, thus they may notbe representative of United States consumers. (are the respondents representative?) ★★★★

4.     Many other better ways might beavailable to improve profits of our stores. (necessityof the solution) ★★★

5.     The president fails to considerthe negative effects of discontinuing the inventory of imported cheeses. (adv:disadv) ★★★★

6.     The president does not provideany information about the actual profit of domestic and imported cheeserespectively, thus we cannot evaluate the president’s conclusion. (I.I) ★★★

★★

67    (经营管理/决策/并列+类比)The following appeared as part of a businessplan developed by the manager of the Rialto Theater. 

\"Despiteits downtown location, the Rialto Movie Theater, a local institution for fivedecades, must make big changes or close its doors forever. It should follow the example of the new Apex Theater in the malloutside of town(1). When the Apex opened last year, it featured a videoarcade, plush carpeting and seats, and a state-of-the-art sound system(2,3).Furthermore, in a recent survey, over 85 percent of respondents (4)reportedthat the high price of newly released movies prevents them from going to themovies more than five times per year. Thus,if the Rialto intends to hold on to its share of a decreasing pool ofmoviegoers, it must(6) offer the same features as Apex(5).\" ★★★63

1.     The manager offers no evidencethat the two theaters are indeed comparable.(F.A) ★★★

2.     We are not informed about theactual profit and the number of moviegoers of Apex since its opening. (I.I) ★★★★

3.     The manager unfairly assumesthat the success of Apex, if there is any, was result from those new featuresmentioned above. (NCR) ★★★★★

4.     The reliability of the surveyon which the argument relies is not guaranteed. (are the respondents representative)

5.     The manager fails to considerthe possible cost of these fashionable features. (adv:disadv/feasibility of the conclusion) ★★★

6.     Other solutions can also beused to achieve the manager’s goal. (Necessityof the solution)

★★

68    (保健/建议/并列+对比)The following appeared in the Sherwood Timesnewspaper.

\"A recentstudy reported that pet owners have longer, healthier lives on average than dopeople who own no pets(1,2). Specifically, dog owners tend to have a lowerincidence of heart disease. In light of these findings, Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood AnimalShelter to institute an \'adopt-a-dog\' program(3,5). The program would encourage dog ownership for patients recovering fromheart disease(4,7), which will helpreduce medical costs(6) by reducingthe number of these patients needing ongoing treatment. In addition, the publicity about the programwill encourage more people(9) toadopt pets(8) from the shelter, whichwill reduce the risk of heart disease in the general population(10).\" ★★60,114

1.     No causal relationship betweenowning pets and healthier lives of the pet owners is established. (confusing concurrence withcausality/confusing the cause and the effect) ★★★★★

2.     There may be other differencesbetween people who own pets and those who do not. (I.C) ★★

★★

3.     Pets could cause other healthproblems. (adv:disadv) ★★★★

4.     The author fails to illustratethat owning a dog would have the same positive effects on recovery of heartdisease as it has on preventing heart disease. (C.S) ★★★

5.     Some patients may not bewilling to adopt a dog, or capable of owning dogs, or could afford raising adog. (feasibility of the conclusion) ★★★

6.     The patients may suffer formother health problems, thus their medical expenses would not necessarilydecrease even if owning a dog could indeed lower the risk of heart disease. (sufficiency of the solution/U.A) ★★★

7.     The author unfairly assumesthat at least a significant number of people who adopt pets from the shelterwill have risks of heart disease. (U.A)★★

8.     The author fails to illustratethat adopting other pets would have the same effect on preventing heart diseaseas owning a dog has. (C.S) ★★★

9.     The author hastily assumes thatthe proposed program would be appealing to the general public. (feasibility of the conclusion) ★★★

10.  Since the risk of heart disease in the general population might beinfluenced by many factors, implementing the program alone may not sufficientlyreduce the risk. (sufficiency of thesolution/U.A) ★★★

69    (工程建设/决策/并列+对比)The following appeared in a memo from a vicepresident of a large, highly diversified company. 

\"Ten yearsago(4) our company had two new regional office buildings built in two differentregions. The buildings were erected by two different constructioncompanies—Alpha and Zeta. Even though the two buildings had virtually identicalfloor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to build,and its expenses for maintenance last year were twice those of the buildingconstructed by Alpha. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the Zeta buildinghas been higher(2) than that of the Alpha building every year since itsconstruction(1). Such data, plus the fact that Alpha has a stable workforcewith little employee turnover(3), indicate that we should use Alpha Construction Company, rather than Zeta(6), forall(5) future building projects.\" ★★17,41,233

1.     The vice president fails toconsider many other differences between the two regions and the two buildings.(I.C) ★★★★★

2.     The high expenses formaintenance of the Zeta building last year might be an unusual case, and do notnecessarily continue in the future. (P→F)★★★

3.     A stable workforce with littleemployee turnover tells nothing about the construction quality of aconstruction company. (I.E/U.C) ★★★

4.     The vice president unfairlyassumes that the working quality of Alpha is still superior to that of Zetatoday as decades ago. (P→F) ★★★★

5.     The facts cited by the vicepresident do not necessarily indicate that Alpha has advantages over Zeta inconstructing all kinds of buildings. (C.S)★★★★★

6.     The vice president fails toconsider other competent construction companies besides Alpha and Zeta. (F.D) ★★★70 

71    (交通运输/建议/类比+并列)The following is a letter to the editor of theWaymarsh Times.

\"Traffic problems here in Waymarsh areobviously reaching record levels. While just three months ago it would takeme 15 minutes to get to work, it now takes closer to 25(1,2). Waymarsh should follow the example of ourneighboring city Gearsville. Last year, Gearsville implemented a policythat rewards people who share rides to work with coupons for free gas(7).Pollution levels in Gearsville have dropped since the policy wasimplemented(3), and several friends(4) who live in Gearsville tell me thattheir trip to work is quicker than it used to be. With the terrible traffic andhigh pollution(6) in Waymarsh, we mustimplement a policy similar to Gearsville\'s(5).\" ★★18,55

1.     The author fails to prove thatthe situation faced by the author is not an unusual case. (C.S) ★★

★★

2.     The author unfairly assumesthat the current situation will continue in the future. (C→F) ★★

3.     The author fails to establish acausal relationship between implementing the policy and drop of pollutionlevels in Gearsville. (post hoc, ergopropter hoc) ★★★★

4.     The author’s friends may not berepresentative of all Gearsville residents. (C.S) ★★★

5.     Implementing the policy similarto Gearsville’s might not be equally effective in Waymarsh.

(F.A)★★★★★

6.     We do not know the actual levelof pollution in Waymarsh and the causes for the pollution, thus implementingthe policy may not necessarily improve Waymarsh’s traffic and environment. (I.I/NCR) ★★★★

7.     The proposed reward policy mayresult in some negative effects. (adv:disadv)★★★

72    (就业/论断/并列)The followingappeared as a letter to the editor of a national newspaper.

\"Your recent article on corporatedownsizing* in the United States is misleading(8). The article gives the mistaken impression that many competent workerswho lost jobs as a result of downsizing face serious economic hardship, oftenfor years, before finding other suitable employment. But this impression iscontradicted by a recent report on the United States economy, which found thatsince 1992 far more jobs(1,2) have been created than have been eliminated. Thereport also demonstrates that many(3) of those who lost their jobs have foundnew employment(4). Two-thirds of the newly created jobs have been in industriesthat tend to pay above-average wages(6), and the vast majority of these jobsare full-time(5).\" ★★★183

*Downsizing isthe process in which corporations deliberately reduce the number of theiremployees. 

1.     The author does not provide theactual number of new jobs created, perhaps the number is still lower than thetotal number of laid-off workers although it is higher than the number of jobseliminated. (V.D) ★★★

2.     The author fails to demonstratethat the newly created jobs since 1992 are suitable for those workers downsizedby corporations. (I.I/feasibility of theconclusion) ★★★★

3.     The report does not clearlydemonstrate what fraction of workers who lost their jobs have found newemployment. (V.D) ★★★

4.     We are not informed what kindof new employment did those workers find, and if these jobs are high-payingjobs. (I.T) ★★★

5.     The author fails to inform ushow many laid-off workers engaged in those highly paid and full-time jobsmentioned by the author. (I.I) ★★★

6.     The fact that many new jobs arein industries that tend to pay high wages does not necessarily guarantee thatthese new jobs are also highly paid. (U.C)★★★

7.     The statistics cited by theauthor still does not rule out the possibility that many laid-off worker doface serious economic hardship before they find a new job. (I.E) ★★★

73    (教育/论断/并列)The Mozart School of Music should obviously bethe first choice(2) of

any music student aware of its reputation(1). First of all, the Mozart School stressesintensive practice and training(3), so that students typically begin theirtraining at a very young age(4). Second, the school has ample facilities andup-to-date professional equipment(5), and its faculty includes some(6) of themost distinguished music teachers in the world(7). Finally, many(10) Mozartgraduates have gone on to be the best known and most highly paid(9) musiciansin the nation(8).

1.     The author does not inform usthe amount of tuition charged by Mozart Music School, and if the giftedstudents could afford it. (I.I/feasibilityof the conclusion) ★★★★

2.     Other music schools may be moresuitable for some students. (necessity ofthe solution) ★★

★★

3.     The author fails to illustratethat intensive practice and training are important and necessary for all musicstudents. (U.A) ★★★★

4.     Beginning intensive practiceand training at very young age may cause some negative effects on musicstudents. (adv:disadv) ★★★★

5.     We are not sure whether theequipment and facilities are available to all new students. (I.I)

★★

6.     We are not informed about theperformance of other faculty members, students are not necessarily taught bythose most distinguished music teachers mentioned in the argument. (I.I)

★★★★

7.     Other music schools may alsohave ample facilities and famous teachers. (exparte information)

★★★

8.     The author unfairly attributesthe graduates’ success to the education they received in Mozart School ofMusic. (NCR) ★★★★★

9.     The argument simply equatesbeing best known and highly paid with musical achievements.

(U.C)★★★

10.The argument fails to provide information concerning the generalemployment condition of the school’s graduates. (I.I/C.S) ★★

74  

75    (政治经济/对策/先并列后递进)Thefollowing appeared in a letter to the editor of a Batavia newspaper.

\"Thedepartment of agriculture in Batavia reports that the number of dairy farms(2)throughout the country is now 25 percent greater than it was 10 years ago.During this same time period, however, the price of milk at the local ExcelloFood Market(1,3) has increased from $1.50 to over $3.00 per gallon(4,5,6). To prevent farmers from continuing toreceive excessive profits on an apparently increased supply of milk, theBatavia government should begin to regulate retail milk prices(8).

Such regulation is necessary to ensure bothlower prices and an adequate supply of milk for consumers(7).\" ★★

1.     The author unfairly assumesthat Excello\'s milk prices reflect those throughout Batavia. (C.S/quantity of the sample) 

★★★★

2.     The number of dairy farms doesnot necessarily indicate the supply of milk. (U.C) ★★★★

3.     Even the production of milk inthe country increased in general, no information is offered to show whether theproduction in Excello also increased. (C.S)★★★

4.     We are not informed about howmuch did the price of milk actually increase after adjustment for inflation. (I.T) ★★★

5.     The author fails to considerthe variation in the demand of milk. (I.T/I.I)★★★

6.     The author does not provide acost benefit analysis. (I.I) ★★★

7.     The author fails to considerother possible methods that may guarantee lower prices and an adequate supply. (necessity of the solution) ★★★

8.     The proposed regulation maylead to undesirable consequences. (I.T/unexpectedconsequences)

★★★★★

76    (经济,投资/建议/大并列小递进)Thefollowing appeared in a newsletter offering advice to investors.

\"Over 80percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reducetheir intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol(1,5), and today low-fatproducts abound in many food stores(2). Since many of the food productscurrently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol(7),

the company\'ssales are likely to diminish greatly and their profits will no doubt decrease(3,4). We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholdersto sell their shares and other investors not to purchase stock in thiscompany(6).\" ★★★★66

1.     The author fails to assure usthat the survey results accurately reflect the desires of most consumers, orthat the results accurately predict consumer behavior. (Are the respondents representative?)

2.     The fact that low-fat foods arein abundant supply in food stores does not necessarily indicate an increasingdemand for low-fat dairy products or a diminishing demand for high-fat dairyproducts.

(NCR)★★★★★

3.     The newsletter concludes toohastily that Old Dairy profits will decline. (U.A) ★★★

4.     The argument fails to provideany information about other products marketed by Old Dairy which may be low infat and cholesterol. (I.I) ★★★

5.     The author fails to considerother factors that may influence the consumers’ decision in choosing food. (I.T) ★★★

6.     The mere fact that many OldDairy’s food products are high in fat and cholesterol does not necessarilyprove that their stock is not worth investing. (I.T) ★★★★

7.     The author ignores t

4 )