AWA > Argument > Argument常用模板逻辑词汇


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Argument常用模板逻辑词汇 收藏 纠错

作者: 发布时间:2022-09-16


必然类:necessarily ensure warrant guarantee causal 
明显类:conspicously obviously clearly apparently 
怀疑类:doubtly unconvincing unacceptable unwarranted unfounded 

可能类:possible probably likely 
There is a good chance that... 
It is more likely that... 
It is equally possible that... 
因果类: result in result from therefore as a result 
转折类:even though however otherwize 

其他类:As we all know.... 
A great deal of emprical evidence shows that.... 
It dosen’t follow that... 
The fact tells very little about .... 
Another assumption short of legitimacy is that.... 

1.A gruondless survey/study 
The validity of the survy is open to doubt. 
The survey lacks representativeness... 
There is no specific information about the survy... 

Without knowing how the survey was done,how it represents the public opnion 
Who conducted the survy?who responded?how the pool was conducted? 
The opinon lacks representativenss of overall attitudes based on which we 
can make any general judgement about the conclusion.... 
In absence of specific information about the survey,it’s impossible for us 
to evaluate the argument. 

The arguer commits a fallacy of oversimplification. 
There are several major factors contribute to the XXX other than YYY ,such 
as/for instance ZZZ, all of which are ignored by the arguer. 
As we know ,XXX depends on many factors ,such as ZZZ, which are unknown 
from the argument. 

The arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between XXX and YYY . 
For example ,YYY may also help explain XXX. 
Factors such as AA and BB both have some bearing on XXX. 
Actually,the recommendation that YYYY as the only way to XXX most likellly turn out to be ineffective and somewhat misleading. 

3.A false analogy 

The argument is based on a false analogy. 
Even though there are some points of comparison between XX and YY,there are 
dissimilaritied as well. 
But the problem is that the two situation are not similar enough to justify 
the analogical deduction. 
As we know,the struction,system,operation are conspicously different. 
It’s a incomplete and selective comparison. 

Even though XX is proved effective in YYY,there is no guarantee that it will 
just work as well in ZZZ. 

4.A gratuitous assumption 
The argument is based on a gratuitous assumption that ####,which is,of 
course unwarranted. 
The arguer fails to convince us that.... 

5.A false dilemma 
The arguer unfairly assumes that we must make an either/or choice between 
XX and YY. 
XX and YY are not necessarily mutually-exclusive alternatives. 
Adjusting XX and YY together might produce a better result. 

6.A hasty generalization 
We are informed that XXX,but we do not know whether all of ### prefer ###. 
We can believe that XXX is indeed ###,but based on this slim informatin 
we can never evaluate the overall performance of YYY. 

7.A fallacy of "after this ,therfore bacause of this" 

The arguer unfairly assumes that XXX caused YYY,since many other reasons may 
explain that###. 
Unless other possiblities have be considered and ruled out ,the conclusion 
is unconvicing. 

8.All things are equal. 
The arguer commits a fallacy of "all things are equal". 

The arguer assumes without justification that the background condtions have 
ramained the same at different time and different places. 

In this argument, the arguer recommends that ####,to support this conclusion 
the arguer cites the result of a resent survy that ####,moreover the arguer 
points out that ####. As it stands ,the argument suffers from several critical 
flaws as follows. 

First of all,the arguer commits a fallacy of ###. 

In addtion,the validity of the survy is open to doubt.##### 

Finally,the argument is based on a gratiutous assumption that ####. 

To sum up,the conclusion reached in the argument lacks credibility since 
the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the 

arguer claims.To make the argument more convincing, the arguer should provid 
more information concerning ####, to better evaluate the argument ,we need 
more concret evidence that ####, otherwise the argument is logically 

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