AWA > Argument > Argument攻击套路13:对比实验问题
Argument攻击套路13:对比实验问题 收藏 纠错
Argument攻击套路13:对比实验问题 收藏 纠错

作者: 发布时间:2020-08-03

167.

Another fundamental problem is that the speakeromits to inform us about the test subjects’ sleep patterns just prior to the experiment. It is impossibleconclude with any confidence that the subjects benefited from sleeping onlavendar-scented pillows without comparing how they slept with the pillows tohow they sleep without them. (初始状态)

Two final problems with the argument involve the experimental process. The experiment’s results are reliable only if all otherfactors that might affect sleep patterns remained constant during thethree-week period, and if the number of experimental subjects isstatistically significant. Without evidence of theexperiment’s methodological and statistical reliability, the speaker’s conclusion is unjustifiable. (其他因素)

168.

The argument assumes unfairly that the additional vitaminD and calcium, rather than the weight training, were responsible for thelower-than-average incidence of hip fractures among this group of women. It is entirely possible that the weighttraining, not the supplements, was responsible for preserving bone mass. Also, weight training is known to improvemuscular strength, coordination, and flexibility, which in turn might reducethe likelihood of accidental falls and other injuries. Thus, the weight trainingcould also have been responsible in this respect.(其他因素)

The argument also overlooks many other possibleexplanations for the comparatively low incidence of hip fractures among thisgroup of women. For example, perhapsthese women were more physically fit than average to begin with. Or perhaps the nursing homes where the groupresided provided special safeguards against accidental injuries that are notordinarily for most elderly people. Or perhaps French people are less susceptible to boneloss than other people are—due perhaps to cultural dietary habits or geneticpredisposition. For that matter,perhaps women are genetically less disposed to lose bone mass than men are. Anyof these scenarios, if ture, would undermine the conclusion that the lowerincidence of hip fractures was attribute to the additional vitamin D andcalcium.(初始状态)

188.

Another problem with the argument is that it overlooks other factors that might havecontributed to the amount ofpain these patients experienced.Perhaps the women’s wisdomteeth were not as impacted as the men’s teeth generally, so that for the womenthe surgery was not as invasive and painful. Perhaps some of the women tookother medications as well to help relieve the pain. For that matter, some ofthe men might have taken certain foods or medications that counteracted theeffects of KO. In short, unless theexperiment was conducted in a controlled environment in which all factors werethe same for menas for women, it isimpossible to draw any firm conclusion about the comparative effectiveness of KO for the two sexes.(其他因素)


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