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In 1909, based on his knowledge of the densities that whitetail deer could reach and of the size of their range, Seton estimated precolonial North America`s whitetail population at 20 million. More recent estimates have been made using more sophisticated techniques. In addition to using better computing techniques, these estimates used Native American population sizes, as well as the numbers of animals Native Americans needed over the course of the year for their survival. Assuming that their hunting was sustainable (which is reasonable, given how long Native Americans had been hunting deer), this gives a minimum size for the population. Together with a better understanding of the whitetails` range, these new estimates point to whitetail populations in the region of 23.6–32.8 million animals.