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English-born photographer Eadweard Muybridge was renowned in the 1860s for the clouds in his landscapes. The chemistry of the wet-plate photography used then made yellows appear far darker than they are, and blues far lighter. The sky in most nineteenth-century photography is pale and featureless, because correctly exposed rocks and trees meant overexposed skies. Muybridge tolerated more darkness in the foreground than other photographers; his shorter exposures and darker images improved his ability to photograph skies in the first place. He also created an archive of cloud photographs that he could superimpose over pale skies in landscapes. Finally, Muybridge pioneered the use of a spring-operated shutter that allowed extremely brief sky exposures with longer exposures for the landscape below.