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The author mentions the "eclectic range of secondary sources" primarily in order to
The author of the passage suggests which of the following about Shakespeares Sisters?
The traditional color of fire trucks is red, but in cities that have introduced yellow trucks into their fleets, the rate of traffic accidents per mile driven among these trucks has been far lower than the rate among red trucks. Some critics of the innovation have questioned whether this difference should be attributed to color, given that the yellow trucks were generally newer than the red trucks with which they were compared. But this criticism can be dismissed. Certainly, the mere difference in accident rates is not decisive evidence. The decisive fact is that the rates differed significantly only in the hours around dawn and dusk. At these hours, the visibility of yellow is known to be better than that of red.
In the argument given, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?
In A Fine Brush on Ivory, his appreciation of novelist Jane Austen, Richard Jenkyns remarks that in Austen scholarship there are pressures that cause ordinary critical circumspection to break down. Principal among those pressures is the peculiar affection in which the person of Jane Austen is held by many readers. This affection is not altogether explained by admiration for her genius, nor is it entirely a symptom of nostalgia for her orderly decorous, vanished world. The impulse to know personally this elusive, even mysterious, writer has led critics to approach her work in mostly biographical or historical ways, often in defiance of other critical fashions, especially the various formal approaches that have dominated modern literary criticism.
According to the passage, critics approach Jane Austens work in biographical or historical ways for which of the following reasons?
In the context in which it appears, "appreciation of" most nearly means
Federal courts in the United States, especially before the famous 1962 case of Baker v. Carr, were often thought to be powerless in the area of election law, voting rights, and other legal questions clearly bearing on politics. This perception was not entirely correct, of course, as pre-1962 Supreme Court decisions such as that in the case of Smith v. Allwright demonstrated in the wake of that decision, voting participation among African Americans in the South increased substantially. However, political rights had not always been so clearly championed by the Supreme Court as they were in Smith v. Allwright. Indeed, the transformations between the Civil War and 1962 were such that, in reviewing voters rights cases over the intervening decades, one feels like an archaeologist cutting through distinct layers in which the judicial decisions uncovered reveal a pattern of ideological and societal change.
The author of the passage uses the analogy of the archaeology most probably in order to
Which of the following can be inferred regarding the case of Baker v. Carr?
Tropical forests typically have many more species of plants and animals than do temperate forests of comparable size. During the Ice Age, forests in temperate regions were destroyed, while those in the tropics were not. Accordingly, one proposed explanation of this difference in the number of species is that tropical forests typically had a much longer period than temperate forests in which different species could take hold.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the proposed explanation?
Some studies have shown that red-backed salamanders (RBS) are scarce in areas with acidic soils and that those present in such conditions have smaller-than-average bodies. Explanations have included the possibility that young RBS are adversely affected by acidic soil, that adult RBS can sense and may avoid acidic soil conditions, or that loss of RBS prey populations due to acidic soil could result in reduced RBS populations. Yet researchers found fairly high densities of large-bodied RBS at Lake Claire Watershed, where soil conditions are acidic. One hypothesis is that intraspecific geographical variation in acidity tolerance (i.e., local adaptation to an acidic environment) could exist for RBS. Previous studies showed potential local adaptation of some salamander species to acidity.
Which of the following can be inferred about the studies mentioned in the highlighted portion of the passage?
The primary purpose of the passage is to
United State women won the vote in 1920 after decades of campaigning. Yet, the impact on womens status was more limited than womens rights activists had anticipated. Women were granted suffrage at a historical point when voting was no longer a significant political activity for many Americans. In the mid-nineteenth century, when women first sought suffrage rights, voter turnout rates were unprecedentedly high, elections in much of the country very competitive, and political parties important. But when women finally received the vote in 1920, electoral politics was largely noncompetitive, with virtual one-party rule in many areas, and voter turnout had slipped to its all-time low. Nonetheless, the vote still mattered enough for women to seek it and for conservatives to try to restrict its availability.
The author of the passage discusses voter turnout rates primarily in order to
The author of the passage mentions conservatives in the highlighted sentence primarily in order to
Unlike the static, classically composed portraits produced by her mentor Walker Evans, twentieth-century New York photographer Helen Levitts photographs seem candid and spontaneous. Whereas Evans subjects look directly into the camera, so that photographer and subject conspire in the making of a portrait, Levitts subjects seem caught unawares. As a "street" photographer, before the terms invention, Levitt has claimed to have attempted to capture life as she found it. But there is a paradox to her technique. Her off-the-cuff aesthetic seemingly guarantees objectivity, since she was recording street scenes she happened upon, yet her photographs could be said to be highly subjective, to be reflections of Levitts own distinctive preoccupations and ways of seeing. Unlike Evans images, Levitts are solely the products of the photographer without the conscious participation of their subjects. The repetitions evident in Levitts choices of subjects, for example, her many photographs of children in masks and disguises, reveal more about Levitt herself than about those subjects.
According to the passage, which of the following appears to ensure the objectivity of Levitts photographs?

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