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When rats are placed under conditions of stress, their adrenal glands immediately increase production of the hormone corticosterone, and soon thereafter the rats` white blood cell count drops substantially. Yet rats without functioning adrenal glands experience little decrease in white blood cell count when placed under conditions of stress. It is likely, therefore, that an increase in corticosterone produced by a rat`s adrenal glands causes the rat`s white blood cell count to decrease.
Which of the following would it be most useful to know in evaluating the reasoning of the argument?
Some psychologists have proposed the hypothesis that children in different cultures have different psychologies, demonstrated, for example, by culture-specific tendencies for the children`s behavior to be relatively self-assertive or obedient. However, that hypothesis is incorrect, since the psychological mechanisms by which children acquire behavioral traits are identical for all cultures.
In the argument, the author`s position and the position challenged by the author differ in the criteria they use to distinguish different

Scholars have tended to treat the ideas of American social reformer Jane Addams as unique, failing to compare them sufficiently those of other social activists and public intellectuals. Recent work, however, has situated her more thoroughly in the thinking and events of her time. For example, labor historians have usefully contextualized Addams` close work with labor unions in the 1890s. When Addams` interest in the workers` reform agenda is understood in relation to the history of trade unionism in Chicago and its impressive record of political action, her contribution emerges as far more cooperative than groundbreaking. Workers influenced her in ways not preciously appreciated. Such contextualizing efforts make it possible to see what Addams learned from other reformers and what she contributed herself.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
The author refers to the "history of trade unionism in Chicago"primarily as
Because different mammalian species favor different environments, identifying and counting bones from prehistoric deposits in caves can reveal much about climatic change. However, using large mammals` bones can be problematic. Some species, such as red deer, are very adaptable -- both on open grassland and in thick woodland. Moreover, some large-animal bones may have traveled considerable distances before being discarded: both carnivores and humans can have large hunting territories and bring home large animals quite unlike those near their den or campsite. Consequently, the bones of the small mammals found with cave sediments provide a better index of climate change they are generally more numerous, the species are more sensitive to environmental conditions, and few travel far within their short lives.
The passage mentions which of the following as an obstacle to using animal bones to reconstruct past climate changes?
The passage mentions "red deer" as an instance of an animal that
Seeding a forest with nonnative species after a fire can impede native plant regeneration and spread invasive species in vulnerable fire-affected soils. Moreover, native seed sources are almost always sufficient for early nature reestablishment of native species, so planting should be considered only when natural regeneration is unlikely. Replanting dense stands of fast-growing conifers---a common postfire management practice---truncates the biologically rich early stage of ecological succession and can increase the severity of future fires. Other treatments should be carefully scrutinized for their potential to spread noxious weeds. For instance, straw mulch applied extensively to reduce erosion after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado was contaminated with cheatgrass, an invasive grass difficult to control or eradicate once established.
According to the passage, which of the following is a consequence of replanting an area with dense stands of fast-growing conifers after a fire?
The passage implies which of the following about native plant regeneration in forests after a fire?
In the late 1990s, the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft detected magnetized patches of terrain near the north pole of Mars and also in the Terra Sirenum region, which is in the planet`s southern hemisphere. These magnetic features may be relics of a global magnetic field in the vicinity of several huge, ancient craters in the Terra Sirenum region, astronomers believe these craters were formed some 3.8 billion years ago from the impact of chunks of debris pelting the inner solar system, where Mars orbits the Sun. If a global magnetic field once existed on Mars, it must have vanished before these craters formed. Such large impacts beat rock to temperatures well above 600 degrees Celsius--high enough to erase any magnetic field that metallic particle within the rock strong at the time the craters formed, it would have realigned and remagnetized the articles as they cooled. The Surveyor findings thus suggest the magnetic field vanished early in the planet`s 4.5 billion-year existence.
According to the passage, astronomers believe which of the following about the "chunks of debris"?
The author`s conclusion in the final sentence of the passage is based in part on which of the following points?
The author of the passage mentions the "inner solar system" in the course of
Virtually everyone who speaks Torvic lives in Torvia, a small country that takes pride in its unique culture. Since Torvia trades with many other countries, however, most people who live in Torvia speak several languages, and many languages are taught in Torvia`s public schools. Nevertheless, from these facts it should not be inferred that most speakers of Torvic speak several languages, because _____
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
During the early nineteenth century, the demand for ever-louder sound led to ever-increasing tension on piano strings, making evident the need for stronger framing. Sooner or later, long after factories had taken over the manufacture of other commodities, the Industrial Revolution nevertheless shaped the attitudes of those who decided whether to accept this innovation. To build pianos with steam-powered tools was one thing, to put a cast-iron frame at the center of the instrument, making the product itself a modern factory of sound rather than a fully handcrafted artwork, in wood, was quite another. The resulting debate was vigorous, with many feeling certain that iron in the piano would ruin the tone.
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