The seemingly unrelated aims of functional strength and aesthetic appeal had been not only successfully integrated in many of the classic suspension bridges of the past two centuries but also commonly achieved by engineers alone or leading teams. Thomas Telford was in fact both engineer and architect of his Menai Suspension Bridge, and John Roebling was both engineer and architect of his Brooklyn Bridge. That these engineering structures especially have come to be regarded as architectural icons demonstrates the aesthetic heights that an engineer can achieve.
Engineers less artistically confident than Telford and Roebling have engaged consulting architects to advise them on the design of everything from the facades placed on massive anchorages and skyscraper-high towers to the finishing details like deck railings and lampposts. Othmar Ammann, the chief engineer of the George Washington and many other New York City bridges, often sought the help of famous architects. When the George Washington was but an idea on paper, Ammann engaged Cass Gilbert, the architect of the Woolworth Building and other landmarks, to depict how the towers might be finished in stone. Since money was tight when the bridge was being completed, however, the steel-framed towers were left bare一a look that the Swiss architect Le Corbusier found extremely appealing-and bare steel became the new aesthetic standard for monumental bridge towers.
|The primary purpose of the passage is to|
|The passage implies that Othmar Ammann was|
|According to the passage, which of the following is true of Cass Gilberfs ideas for Hnishing the towers of the George Washington Bridge?|
|Most Oakville residents want a community swimming pool to be built but do not want to finance it with local tax revenues. Oakville's mayor argues that although the town has no financial reserves, building a pool will not lead to higher taxes, since an unused town-owned land parcel is available and admission fees will cover the entire cost of operating the pool as well as repayment of the S3 million debt for construction.|
|Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the mayor's argument?|
|Isobel Grundy rightly argues that in researching pre-nineteenth-century women's historical writing, scholars must define history broadly and include historical fiction, biography, court memoirs, and family history. Grundy also believes that these writings provide "a history of a whole female culture, while embodying a pre-nineteenth-century "feminine" relationship to history. On this point, I am skeptical, as I do not believe there was a characteristic women's relationship to history. Instead, my research suggests that pre-nineteenth-century British women writers' engagement with historical discourse depended on such things as their political commitments and class affiliations and their perceptions of developing historical genres and markets. We must give sufficient attention to the myriad individual authors and texts before generalizing widely about women writers' engagements with history.|
|The passage implies that its author would agree with which of the following statements about "historical fiction, biography, court memoirs, and family history"?|
|Which of the following describes a difference between the author and Grundy regarding British women writers` engagement with historical discourse?|
|Some economists suggest that all firms would be expected to pay workers doing identical jobs the same wage. However, studies show that high-profit industries tend to pay more. While some of this observed wage gap could be due to difficulties in measuring workers` talent, it is unlikely that such measurement problems can explain everything. Although talent is hard to measure, factors with which it is presumably correlated, such as education and tenure, are not. Yet studies that control for those factors still find big wage disparities. Moreover, although receptionists, for example, do not become less talented when they leave a high-profit industry to work in an industry with lower profits, their pay tends to drop in line with the wage gap between the two.|
|According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding difficulties in measuring workers` talent.|
|Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?|
Comets-detritus from the formation of outer solar system bodies-represent one possible source of Earth's water. Although hundreds of Earth masses of comets now reside in orbits far from the Sun, early in the history of the solar system comets were more commonly in orbits that intersected the orbits of Mars, Earth, and Venus (based on computer studies of solar system formation). Collisions of comets with the planets would have released the cometary ices and gases into the atmospheres of the target planets. Early in Earth's history, the first couple of hundred million years, cometary material including water might have been episodically added to the atmosphere. However, the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen(D/H) in the water ice portion of most (but not all) comets that have been measured is twice that in ocean water on the Earth. No plausible way has been found to lower the value after it has been added to the Earth. Therefore, comets do not appear to be the primary source of Earth's water.
Two alternative possibilities have been proposed. Bodies in the asteroid belt would have been richer in water than material near the Earth, and Jupiter perturbed that material into orbits that could have allowed accretion by the Earth. Most of this material would have been in the form of bodies as large as the moon or even Mars, so that these collisions would have been violent. Nonetheless, the net effect would have been the addition of water to the growing Earth. Carbonaceous meteorites, some of which may have been derived from the asteroid belt, have a D/H range that averages out to the value present in the Earth's oceans. However, some of the details of the elemental and isotopic abundances in the carbonaceous chondrites [a type of meteorite] limit to 1 percent the amount of this material that could have been added to the Earth. It is possible that other types of chondrites were present in the asteroid belt that today are poorly known, such as a new class of bodies represented by a handful of so-called "main belt comets, but for the moment this is speculative. Alternatively, water could have been absorbed [gathered on a surface in a condensed layer] on rocky grains closer to the Earth, and brought in through a gentle rain of this material. While laboratory studies show that enough water might have stuck to the grains to explain the abundance of the Earth's oceans, the presence of such a water-laden dust laver in the nebula remains speculative.
|The "carbonaceous meteorites" are important to the first of two alternative possibilities discussed in the passage because these meteorites.|
|It can be inferred from the passage that an important difference between the "two alternative possibilities" is that the second one|
|Which of the following can be inferred about the "carbonaceous meteorites" discussed in the passage?|
|The author discusses "other types of chondrites" primarily because|
A year ago, the government of Fortran predicted that Torre City would experience strong net job growth for the following year but that Glanville, Portran's other major city, would not. Events have clearly proved otherwise, however, in Torre City, but not in Glanville, the number of people who are unemployed is greater now than it was a year ago.
|Which of the following is an assumption on which the editorial`s argument depends?|
As they unearth long- ignored women's writings, some feminist literary scholars have a tendency to evaluate those writings according to current ideological standards. This tendency, however understandable, has certain pitfalls, as feminist response to three late-seventeenth-and early-eighteenth-century English female playwrights demonstrates. Mary Pix, Catharine Trotter, and Delarivier Manley each wrote at least four plays and were known collectively as the "Female Wits." These women saw themselves as participating in a common endeavor, but feminist scholars have evaluated their works in very different terms. Trotter and Manley have been praised for their depiction of "feminist" themes一Trotter because of her insistence on feminine virtue, and Manley because of her depiction of strong, if sometimes villainous, heroines-while Pix's works, because they depict women in ways now considered stereotypically "feminine," are often dismissed.
Yet Pix is conservative only within a present-day context: within the context of late-seventeenth-and early- eighteenth-century English drama, Pix's plays were more formally innovative than Manley's and more successful than either Manley's or Trotter'. She also broke new ground regarding subject matter, addressing contemporary social issues such as class upheaval. However, these acts are rarely acknowledged by scholars of the Female Wits.