Consider each of the choices separately ana select all that apply.
As suggested by the passage, Barrett and Henzi would probably agree that
|Snow algae, the most prolific and colorful microbial species colonizing snow and ice surfaces, have been studied in many polar and alpine settings. As part of their life cycle and as a mechanism of protection from high irradiation, snow algal species produce red pigments (carotenoids). Through this protective reaction, algal blooms color snow and ice surfaces and cause a darkening of glacial surfaces, which in turn leads to a decrease in surface albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface). Such a decrease of albedo may speed up melting processes and is of special interest in Iceland, where glaciers are retreating fast and where albedo is also affected by the presence of volcanic dust and ash on snow and ice surfaces.|
|It can be inferred that the presence of volcanic dust and ash on snow surfaces in Iceland is likely to|
|According to the passage, snow algal species produce red pigments for which of the following reasons?|
Despite the magnitude of his accomplishments and praise from certain later philosophers, philosopher and scientist Charles Peirce (1839-1914) remains largely ignored in modern philosophy. This neglect stems from the inherent difficulty of his theories, the chaotic state of his voluminous writings, and the dissonance of his doctrines, which range from an insistence on rigorous scientific methodology to a cosmological metaphysics of "evolutionary love."
Certainly much of Peirce's work is of mere historical interest, and many of his discoveries are partial anticipations of work done better by others. Still, he had a wider range of interests, a deeper knowledge of the history of philosophy, and a greater command of scientific culture than any philosopher of his day. Although Peirce never welded his views into a system and his writing is often slapdash, its tangled quality results directly from his immense erudition and his refusal to oversimplify. What he offers the patient reader is great breadth and complexity.
|The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to|
|The author suggests that which of the following was a flaw in Peirce's work?|
|The author mentions Peirce's theory of ^evolutionary love" most likely in order to|
In 1975 a subway ride cost a mere 40 cents and an Acme reclining chair cost under $500. The price of a subway ride and of most other things has tripled since 1975, but Acme reclining chairs-which have always been of the same excellent quality一still cost under $500 today. Acme chairs are thus a better value than ever.
|Use in the advertisement of which of the following phrases most seriously calls into question whether the evidence offered adequately supports the conclusion?|
|In 1838, twenty-nine years before publishing his translation of Dante's Inferno, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote that "to understand Dante ... it is absolutely necessary to understand the Italian Language. How true was Longfellow to his own dictum? Judging by the problems he had in composing a simple inscription, his ability to express himself in Italian was probably modest. However, this does not mean his understanding of the written language was inadequate. Longfellow's translation is on the whole not only correct but accurate and attentive to the semantic nuances of the original. Indeed, the literalness of his translation shows he understood Dante's language so well that he felt duty bound to render into English its extraordinary precision, richness, and variety.|
|The author cites Longfellow's remarks from 1838 in order to|
|Which of the following does the author cite as support in assessing Longfellow's knowledge of the Italian language?|
Researchers attempting to reconstruct domestic interiors of Greece's Hellenistic period (lasting from 323 B.C.E. until 31 B.C.E.) have fairly scant evidence from which to draw conclusions. Excavations of Hellenistic domestic sites have turned up coins, vases, and other objects but almost no furniture. The furniture found in tombs outnumbers the furniture excavated from domestic sites. This pattern of preservation is a result of the materials used in construction. Funerary furniture is usually made of stone and thus likely to be preserved. But many of the materials used for domestic furniture, particularly wood, are perishable and have not survived. It should he stressed, therefore, that researchers' grounds for comparison between funerary and domestic spaces are limited. It is impossible to know the amount of perishable furniture used in daily life. Only a few examples of nonperishable parts of furniture, such as metal-sheathed legs or appliques for bed rests, have been excavated from Hellenistic homes. In addition, many sites with Hellenistic habitation were entirely rebuilt in later times, a process leading to the reuse of Hellenistic material in later furniture.
If there was nonperishable domestic furniture, what happened to it? It might seem likely that it, and much perishable furniture, was looted by invading armies, but there is no literary evidence to support this assumption. Furniture is not mentioned, for example, among the plunder obtained from Greek sites in descriptions of Roman triumphs, the processions in which victorious generals paraded the spoils of war through the streets of Rome. Accounts of Asian plunder, by contrast, did mention furniture. One might argue that literary accounts of triumphs are neither accurate nor detailed lists of objects obtained from the enemy but the distinction between Greek and Asian plunder is significant. If furniture was worth carrying off from Asia, then why not from Greece?
There are two possible explanations for the absence of furniture from the Greek plunder described in accounts of Roman triumphs either there was not much luxurious furniture for Roman soldiers to carry off, or the sociopolitical reality of Rome in the second century B.C.E., when most of the plundering of Greece took place, was different from that of the first century B.C. E, the period of the Asian conquests. Perhaps expensive furniture of a private nature was rejected as suitable plunder in the second century because it was too much associated with personal luxury but was acceptable in the first century, when Romans, own tastes had begun to change.
|The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements about "furniture found in tombs"?|
|The author suggests that during "the period of the Asian conquests"|
|The author mentions "descriptions of Roman triumphs" primarily in order to|
|The "two possible explanations" include which of the following?|
|Vitamin E helps the body eliminate harmful chemicals, so some health-conscious people take vitamin E supplements. There are two forms of vitamin E, and currently vitamin E supplements contain only the alpha form, while only the gamma form rids the body of the destructive chemical peroxynitrate. As it turns out, there is enough gamma form contained in the typical diet to protect against peroxynitrate, yet even so, the gamma form should be added to Vitamin E supplements because _______________ .|
|Which of the following most logically completes the argument?|