|As commerce thrived between 1780 and 1850, the British middle class adopted the economic customs of the older artisan and upper classes to manage their growing wealth. Families had once conducted business from their homes, now, as middle-class adult males became responsible for providing a separate household where their dependents could live genteel private lives, a new masculine identity emerged, centered on economic skills and increasingly identified with occupation. Early in this period, tasks associated with commerce had been regarded simply as activities, not as identities, and were often performed as private services to wealthy patrons. As middle-class men developed more independent, public ways of doing business, such tasks became associated with occupational titles requiring special qualifications, including systematic training. Formerly, religion and family ties had defined a man`s identity, increasingly, a man was what he did.|
|According to the passage, which of the following was characteristic of the masculine identity that emerged in the British middle-class between 1780-1850?|
|Which of the following, if true , would most strengthen the argument about masculine identity presented in the passage?|
|Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?|
|New underwater tunnel projects increasingly rely upon immersed tube technology, which involves digging a channel in the seabed and then sinking prefabricated tunnel sections into it. As well as being more resilient in earthquakes, immersed tubes are generally faster and less expensive to build than traditional bored tunnels. To begin with, problems with one section of tunnel won`t necessarily delay the entire project, and because immersed tubes can have a rectangular cross-section, they are a more efficient shape than circular tunnels for side-by-side railway lines, And while bored tunnels are usually considered stable only if their depth under the seabed at least equals their diameter, immersed tubes can sit immediately under the seafloor, allowing shallower approach gradients.|
|The highlighted sentence performs which of the following function in the passage?|
|It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of bored tunnels?|
|In the conceptual art of the late twentieth century, the thought processes that spawned a work of art were considered more important than the art object itself. Oftentimes, idea was so valued that artists eliminated the traditional art object altogether. Performance, installations, body art, and earthworks became especially fashionable, since they did not result in a permanent work of art. Transient art ideally suited the logic of conceptualism because the existence of the "work" was brief, its meaning and the act of creating it became foregrounded. However, despite its transitory nature, conceptual art could be, and was, preserved in artists` plans, diagrams, written records, and photographs. These documents, ironically, became the very preservable artifacts that conceptualism debunked, and acquired high art value in and of themselves.|
|Select the sentence that provides examples of transient art|
|Normally, business leaders would welcome such a huge market as that which exists in the area of environmental improvement--- it is worth more than 500 billion dollars worldwide. But the terminology and rhetoric of the environmental improvement field have so confused and polarized thinking that the implications of such a valuable market are generally overlooked. Despite the huge economic gains shown by virtually every careful study, environmental improvement is generally referred to as a "cost" by most business executives, political fugures, and policy makers. Yet, like other industries, environmental improvement responds to a valid demand, and it creates jobs, profits, and positive benefits for citizens. Environmental improvement, according to management expert James Quinn, should be viewed as a market rather than as a cost.|
|Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?|
|In the context in which it appears, "Normally" most nearly neans|
Writers of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s often looked beyond the boundaries of the United States for models, and one of the most commonly invoked were writers of the Irish Renaissance. While it would be too much to claim that modern Irish writers had a strong influence on the writers of the Harlem Renaissance, it can be said that the paradigm of one generation of a historically oppressed people rising to literary greatness did serve as an inspiration and occasional guide for African American writers in the 1920s. Moreover, the situation of the Irish writer around the beginning of the twentieth century is remarkably similar to that of the African American writer in the 1920s, a fact suggesting that the two literatures, Anglo-Irish and African American, may profitably be looked at in a comparative framework.
The facts of the history of spoken language would seem to indicate the basis for a distinct, discernible "voice" for each group: "Irish English" reflected the language of a nation that had been, until the mid-nineteenth century, half Gaelic-speaking, while "Black English" was a means of cultural preservation for African Americans amid the linguistic practices of non-African American society. Nevertheless, neither group of Renaissance writers was interested primarily in language. Even John Synge, the most linguistically imitative of writers, saw his artistic task as a distillation, and not a direct representation, of the "fiery and magnificent" imagination of the Irish. James Weldon Johnson, at the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance, tried to chart a course for African American literature to steer between the "stereotype" of dialect and what he viewed as the uninteresting and culturally inappropriate use of conventional English.
With regard to the cultural heritage from which they approached the reality of the present, Irish and African American writers faced the same dilemma, namely, that the dominant culture largely refused to recognize that heritage and its validity. Thus Irish writers began to revive and update the body of Irish heroic legend, specifically the cycle of Red Branch tales. But African American writers in the 1920s did not have such a clearly defined body of heroic legend on which to draw. While there were scores of heroic tales from the period of slavery, these were compromised both by their origin in slavery and their adoption and alternation by non-African American writers in works such as Joel Chandler Harris`s Uncle Remus tale. What many African American writers opted for instead was an emphasis on the land of origin---African, as an ancient, fully developed civilization. While Irish writers were nostalgic for a culture from which they were historically separated, African American writers were nostalgic for land from which they were geographically separated.
|According to the passage, writers of the Irish Renaissance revived Irish heroic legends in order to|
|The passage supports which of the following statements concerning the representation of distinctive speech patterns by African American writers of the Harlem Renaissance?|
|The author mentions James Weldon Johnson`s approach to the written representation of speech primarily in order to|
|The author mentions Joel Chandler Harris`s Uncle Remus tales in order to|
|Prehistoric humans domesticated wolves, which eventually developed into dogs. Based on all available archaeological evidence, archaeologists are certain that there were no dogs in Europe much earlier than 14,000 years ago. According to current genetic divergence theory, however, dogs must have started becoming a distinct species from wolves as early as 135,000 years ago, and it is extremely unlikely that dogs would have started becoming a distinct species unless they had been domesticated.|
|Which of the following hypotheses is most strongly supported by the information given?|
In river science, as in all sciences, there is an accepted way of analyzing problems. This standardized way of collecting and analyzing data allows a cleaner comparison of results between sites or time periods, and better evaluation of the effectiveness of different management activities. Often this involves a preconceived reference frame for types of problems. What is gained in the efficient production of knowledge, however, is potentially lost for the potential of novel observations.
In the case of sediment transport, during the last century, river scientists have shown much less concern for sediment storage than for sediment movement, even though any given sediment particles is likely to spend centuries to millennia in storage on a floodplain or in bars [submerged banks of sediment] and only days to weeks in actual transport. Meade suggests that were geomorphologists to have focused on individual sediment particles` movement beyond just the reach [a short, straight segment of a river] scale, emphasis from the research community would have inevitably focused on sediment storage, and thus on the process that sediment undergoes during storage rather than on the process of mobilizing sediment. Fluvial geomorphology would probably then have been dominated by studies of chemical weathering rather than fluid mechanics. The preference for Eulerian-based studies of sediment fluxes and the processes that determine those fluxes have arguably biased the research agenda of geomorphologists for several decades.