|As businesses become aware that their advertising must （i）_____ the everyday concerns of consumers, their commercials will be characterized by a greater degree of （ii）_____.|
|Because the lawyer's methods were found to be （i）_____, the disciplinary committee（ii）_____ hisprivileges.|
|People of intelligence and achievement can nonetheless be so （i）_____ and lacking in （ii）_____ that theygamble their reputations by breaking the law tofurther their own ends.|
|A number of scientists have published articles （i）_____ global warming, stating （ii）_____ that there is no solid scientific evidence to support the theory that the Earth is warming because of increases in greenhouse gases.|
|The senator's attempt to convince the public that she is not interested in running for a second term is as _____ as her opponent's attempt to disguise his intention to run against her.|
|MacCrory’s conversation was _____: she could never tell a story, chiefly because she always forgot it, and she was never guilty of a witticism, unless by accident.|
|Despite its many （i）_____, the whole-language philosophy of teaching reading continues to gain （ii）_____ among educators.|
|That she was （i）_____ rock climbing did not diminish her （ii）_____ to join her friends on a rock-climbing expedition.|
|Data concerning the effects on a small population of high concentrations of a potentially hazardous chemical are frequently used to _____ the effects on a large population of lower amounts of the same chemical.|
|Conceptually, it is hard to reconcile a defense attorney's （i）_____ to ensure that false testimony is not knowingly put forward with the attorney's mandate to mount the most （ii）_____ defense conceivable for the client.|
|The term “modern”has always been used broadly by historians, and recent reports indicate that its meaning has become more _____ than ever.|
|He would （i）_____ no argument, and to this end he enjoined us to （ii）_____.|
|Originally, most intellectual criticism of mass culture was （i）_____ in character, being based on the assumption that the wider the appeal, the more （ii）_____ the product.|
|Surprisingly, given the dearth of rain that fell on the com crop, the yield of the harvest was （i）_____; consequently, the corn reserves of the country have not been （ii）_____|
This passage is based on an article published in 1990. Eight times within the pat million years, some- thing in the Earth’s climatic equation has changed. allowing snow in the mountains and the northern Line latitudes to accumulate from one season to the next instead of melting away. Each time, the enormous ice sheets resulting from this continual buildup lasted tens of thousands of years until the end of each particular glacial cycle brought a warmer climate. Scientists speculated that these glacial cycles were ultimately driven by astronomical factors: slow, cyclic changes in the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit and in the tilt and orientation of its spin axis. But up until around 30 years ago, the lack of an independent record of ice- age timing made the hypothesis untestable.
Then in the early 1950’s Emiliani produced the first complete record of the waxings and wanings of past glaciations. It came from a seemingly odd place. the seafloor. Single-cell marine organisms called "foraminifera" house themselves in shells made from calcium carbonate. When the foraminifera die. sink to the bottom, and become part of seafloor sediments, the carbonate of their shells preserves certain characteristics of the seawater they inhabited. In particular, the ratio of a heavy, isotope of oxygen (oxygen-18) to ordinary oxygen (oxygen- 16) in the carbonate preserves the ratio of the two oxygens in water molecules.
It is now understood that the ratio of oxygen isotopes in seawater closely reflects the proportion of the world’s water locked up in glaciers and ice sheets. A kind of meteorological distillation accounts for the link. Water molecules containing the heavier isotope tend to condense and fall as precipitation slightly sooner than molecules containing the lighter isotope. Hence, as water vapor evaporated from warm oceans moves away from its source. its oxygen -18 returns more quickly to the oceans than does its oxygen-16. What falls as snow on distant ice sheets and mountain glaciers is relatively depleted of oxygen -18. As the oxygen-18-poor ice builds up the oceans become relatively enriched in the Isotope. The larger the ice sheets grow, the higher the proportion of oxygen-18 becomes in seawater- and hence in the sediments.
Analyzing cores drilled from seafloor sediments, Emiliani found that the isotopic ratio rose and fell in rough accord with the Earth’s astronomical cycles. Since that pioneering observation, oxygen-isotope measurements have been made on hundreds of cores A chronology for the combined record enables scientists to show that the record contains the very same periodicities as the orbital processes. Over the past 800,000 years, the global ice volume has peaked every 100,000 years, matching the period of the orbital eccentricity variation. In addition, “wrinkles” superposed on each cycle –small decreases or surges in ice volume – have come at intervals of roughly 23,000 and 41,000 years, in keeping with the pre- cession and tilt frequencies of the Earth’s spin axis.
|Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?|
|Although Victor Turner’s writings have proved fruitful for fields beyond anthropology, his definition of ritual is overly restrictive. Ritual, he says, is “pre- list scribed formal behavior for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in mystical beings or powers,” “ Technological routine” refers to the means by which a social group provides for its material needs. Turner’s differentiating ritual from technology helps us recognize that festivals and celebrations may have little purpose other than play, but it obscures the practical aims, such as making crops grow or healing patients, of other rituals. Further, Turner’s definition implies a necessary relationship between ritual and mystical beliefs. However, not all rituals are religious; some religions have no reference to mystical beings; and individuals may be required only to participate in, not necessarily believe in, a ritual. Turner's assumption that ritual behavior follows belief thus limits the usefulness of his definition in studying ritual across cultures.|
|According to the passage, which of the following does Turner exclude from his conception of ritual?|
|Benjamin Franklin established that lightning is the transfer of positive or negative electrical charge between regions of a cloud or from cloud to earth. Such transfers require that electrically neutral clouds, with uniform charge distributions, become electrified by separation of charges into distinct regions. The greater this separation is, the greater the voltage, or electrical potential of the cloud. Scientists still do not now the precise distribution of charges in thunderclouds nor how separation adequate to support the huge voltages typical of lightning bolts arises. According to one theory, the precipitation hypothesis, charge separation occurs as a result of precipitation. Larger droplets in a thundercloud precipitate downward past smaller suspended droplets. Collisions among droplets transfer negative charge to precipitating droplets, leaving the suspended droplets with a positive charge, thus producing a positive dipole in which the lower region of the thundercloud is filled with negatively charged raindrops and the upper with positively charged suspended droplets.|
|The passage is primarily concerned with discussing which of the following?|