Although viticulture was already an established trade in many parts of the world, until the 1970s, New World wine -- particularly that of California -- was not taken seriously internationally, especially in France. Steven Spurrier, a British expatriate and Parisian wine merchant, organized The Judgment of Paris in 1976, in which a panel of nine French judges selected Californian wines for the best cabernet sauvignon and chardonnay. It was difficult to dismiss the results; only the scores of top expert French judges had been used in the final tally. Furthermore, the Californian wines had been transported in personal luggage while the French bottles had been properly stored locally. Spurrier later admitted that he had been certain of the superiority of French wine and had done his best to tilt the contest in their favor.
As news began to spread of the results, the impact of the tasting became apparent. Leaders of the French wine industry were outraged at the results, and the French press was both slow to respond and dismissive of the event. The only journalist who witnessed the event, George M. Taber of Time magazine, published an article about the tasting and word quickly spread. Viticulture in California spread rapidly, and exports to many countries besides France skyrocketed. Many criticisms of the methodology of the tasting were soon raised, particularly the assertion that French wines aged better than those of California. However, repeat blind tastings in 1978, 1986, and 2006 of the same vintages all favored the same Californian wines.
|According to the passage, which of the following criticisms of contest was weakened by later tastings?|
|When a property owner discovers that oil or natural gas exist beneath property for which a title has been legally and completely obtained, rights to the embedded minerals can be leased to others. Once the commodity rights are leased, the lessee will issue the owner an up-front payment to explore the property and investigate possible ways to extract the commodity. This is nonrefundable, even if the source of the mineral is less prevalent than the lessee predicted it to be or if it is in an unextractable form. Once the lessee locates the oil or gas source and is able to implement an extraction method that is sanguine to both lessee and property owner, the owner may demand a share of the profits from the commodity. Customary royalties on commodities is about 12.5%, but in cases of highly desirable properties or where there is a great deal of disruption to one's home or property, the rate can be 25% or higher.|
|Based on the passage, which of the following are possible reasons that a greater royalty than the customary 12.5% can be required?|
|A recent biostatistical study attempted to determine the relationship between childhood and adult obesity. Across all weight, sex, racial, and ethnic groups, most of the severely obese teenagers in the study—defined as having a body mass index greater than or equal to 40—did not become severely obese as adults. However, a large proportion of severely obese teens remained so into adulthood. At greatest risk of becoming severely obese were black females.|
|According to the passage, which of the following is a consequence of severe obesity?|
Beyond its great influence on American literature, Herman Melville's Moby-Dick is often credited with popularizing cetology, the study of whales, in the United States. Much of Melville's interest and information originated during his own time on a whaling ship, and the narrator's comments likely reflect his own observations. Although the narrator recognizes some previous studies of whales, he instead creates his own definitions, describing the whale as a "spouting fish with a horizontal tail," as well as any other creature Nantucket whalers have referred to as a whale. Continuing in his taxonomy, he groups whales into three major categories, or books, by size: the folio whale, the octavo whale, and the duodecimo whale, with smaller chapters within.
There have been various explanations offered as to why Melville chose to include this chapter in his book. It does not lend itself to the overall narrative nor does it help to develop any of the characters. Indeed, in abridged editions of Moby-Dick, it is often one of the chapters omitted. Some opine that Melville was simply wishing to demonstrate his knowledge of whales, others that is meant to raise the tension of the plot, mimicking the long and slow journey, still others that Melville simply found the information interesting and wished to share it. Nevertheless, its topic and placement in an otherwise fictional work make the chapter as remarkable as it is strange.
|According to the passage, where did Melville gain most of his information about whales?|
|Literature is frequently a crucible through which the practice of censorship is refined. A controversial text occasions a public forum for a culture to articulate its moral standards and values. When James Joyce's Ulysses was first published in The Little Review in the United States, it provoked outrage from some readers who felt its content was obscene in nature. When the publisher tried to import copies of the novel into the US, they were seized by customs on the grounds that the novel was obscene. The case went to trial, with the U.S. attorney contending that the book was obscene and subject to seizure. The presiding judge felt differently. His justification for the ruling was that after reading the work in its entirety, and not merely the excerpts that had been found objectionable, the work was clearly not written with pornographic intent. He stated that nowhere does it produce "sexually impure and lustful thoughts." Pursuant to this, the book was not, objectively speaking, obscene. When the graphic passages were read, in the context of the novel as a cohesive, artistic whole, the effect did not tend to function as an "aphrodisiac," but it was "emetic" at times. The same could be said for scientific and medical texts dealing with human anatomy and sexuality, as well as classic works of Greco-Roman literature. As a result of this ruling, censors would now have to account for not only community standards of morality, but also the text's effect on the average reader, as well as the work in its entirety.|
|In the context of the passage, the word "emetic" most nearly means:|
|One of S?ren Kierkegaard's recurring philosophical preoccupations was the study of morality. |~His writing touches upon whether there is an external, objective ethical standard, such as the Ten Commandments, or if there is something beyond ethics upon which right and wrong were predicated.| Kierkegaard's thinking trends towards the latter. Traditional Hegelianism would assert that there is an external code from which any deviation is unjustified. Kierkegaard's view is more nuanced. To illustrate his point, he cited the biblical story of Abraham and Isaac. In the story, God instructs Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac. Kierkegaard points out that this is abhorrent by any normative code of ethics, but that Abraham is traditionally regarded as having behaved virtuously. |~He resolves the apparent contradiction by suggesting that morality is subject to teleological suspension of the ethical, from the Greek telos, meaning "end," or "goal."| He saw Abraham as a paradigm of morality vis-à-vis his faith in that telos. At the conclusion of the biblical narrative, Abraham obeys the command to sacrifice his son, but at the last second his hand is stopped by divine intervention, thus sparing his son.|
|The passage's description of Kierkegaard's views on ethics suggests which of the following conclusions?|
|It is very hard to prove or disprove the existence of the Loch Ness Monster because of the characteristics of the very loch that it supposedly inhabits. Loch Ness has cold, murky waters that yield almost zero visibility, a surface area of almost 22 square miles, and depths approaching 1,000 feet. Though the oldest reference to the monster can be traced back as far as 565 ce, the present incarnation of "Nessie" first caught the modern public's eye in April of 1933, shortly after local hotel owners Mr. and Mrs. John Mackay reportedly spotted, in their own words, "an enormous animal rolling and plunging." They detailed their incident to the Inverness Courier, and suddenly the Loch Ness monster was plucked from historical obscurity to be reborn in the pages of the world news. Since then there have been innumerable hoaxes, unexplained sightings, and serious scientific investigations that have turned up some interesting, yet inconclusive evidence. Recently, after the most technologically advanced search to date, a group of researchers working for the BBC concluded that the creature simply does not exist. But the daunting evidence of the researchers has seemingly not deterred the legions of tourists and part-time Nessie hunters. Apparently, as long as the slightest possibility of Nessie being real has existed, the hotels around the Loch, as they have been since 1933, will be full of intrigued souls hoping to catch just a glimpse of a real-life monster.|
|It can be inferred from the passage that the only way the mystery of the Loch Ness Monster will be solved is if|
|Increasingly, scientists in various fields are using multimedia, such as publicly-available videos, blogs, and tweets for research purposes. A neurobiologist who noticed that people posted videos of dancing animals conducted groundbreaking research on the relationship between vocal mimicking, language acquisition, and the ability to move to rhythm. Sociologists study the posted videos, blogs, and e-mails of convicted sex offenders to identify patterns of sociopathy. Years of home videos posted to the web revealed that subjects who developed schizophrenia in their late teens displayed certain key behaviors, such as lack of eye contact, weak responsiveness, and uneven motor development in infancy and childhood.|
|It can be reasonably inferred from the passage that|
|The design and architecture of Monticello reflects many of Thomas Jefferson's personal philosophies. For example, Jefferson, like many of the founding fathers, held strongly that the presidency was not equivalent to the role of a king, and in deliberate design, the size and scope of Monticello resembles more of a functional agrarian building rather than a showcase estate. The entranceway in Monticello is significantly more modest and cozy than the typical reception halls of the European monarchies. However, Jefferson himself was prone to excess, and many elements within the design, such as the large dome, serve little to no practical purpose. The tight, curving staircases in the entranceway had a strict width to reflect his republican ethos, even though it often rendered the stairs impractical. During Jefferson's life, Monticello was constantly under construction. Jefferson spent into his penury to improve it, perhaps revising his original ideas as his optimism grew and his finances dwindled.|
|The central point of the passage is to|
|According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, objects at different gravitational potentials or observers in motion experience variability in the speed of time. Where gravity is stronger, time moves more slowly; similarly, as an object's speed increases, its relative rate of time passage decreases. Atomic clocks moving at high velocities, such as on airplanes, or at high physical elevation have demonstrated these shifts in time. Even short distances, such as an upstairs bedroom or minor speeds, such as 10 meters per second, can demonstrate variance in the speed of time. This would appear to apply to normal biological processes: one's feet age more slowly than one's head as one's feet are more affected by Earth's gravitational pull. Living at higher altitudes, whether in mountains or in the penthouse of a skyscraper, also ages a body faster than spending more time closer to the ground. Objects in motion, even at a casual pace, would appear to a stationary observer to age more slowly as well. However, although the difference in perceived time is measurable, it is very small—about 100 nanoseconds over 100 years, so it's unlikely to entice anyone to give up their top floor corner office or mountaintop cabin to avoid a wrinkle or gray hair before its natural time.|
|Based on the information in the passage, with which of the following would the author most likely agree?|