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The majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists worked hard to convince their compatriots that the changes they advocated were not revolutionary. Far from undermining the accepted distribution of power, their reforms would eliminate deviations from the democratic principle upon which it was based. Non-Garrisonian abolitionists repeatedly disavowed miscegenation and revolutionary intentions. As for the suffragists, despite the presence in the movement of socialists, and in the final years of a few blacks, immigrants, and workers, the racism and nativism in the movement's thinking were not an aberration and did not conflict with the movement's objective of suffrage. Far from saying, as presentist historians do, that the white abolitionists and suffragists compromised the abiding principles of equality and the equal right of all to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, just the opposite is suggested: the non-Garrisonian majority of white abolitionists and the majority of suffragists showed what those principles meant in their respective generations, because they traced the farthest acceptable boundaries around them.
Martha Graham is remembered in the dance community as a pioneer of modern dance choreography. However, it was her desire to live on as a dancer. She danced first as a member of the Denishawn Company, put on solo performances in New York, and later danced at Radio City Music Hall. She gave lessons in movement and modeled coats to fund her own dance company. It was with this company that her eclectic and radical technique made its mark on modern dance history.

Graham was by no means the first dancer to deviate from the strict classical ballet techniques of the early 20th century. Many young American women were also making their own variations to the standard dance style. But Graham's alterations of sharp, jagged movements and sweeping floor work reformed the whole of modern dance theory and the very notion of what a dancer was. Her signature style continues to permeate the work of contemporary dance and influence modern choreographers, although some, such as Taylor and Cunningham, both former members of Graham's company, have disowned her intense manner of teaching and technique.
The passage states that Graham made a living doing all of the following EXCEPT
The culture surrounding popular music is constantly under scrutiny because of its influence on the already unpredictable teenage society, a group that comprises the main consumers of this type of music. Critics of pop music fear the sway that icons in this genre hold over adolescents because of the preconceived negative stereotypes these icons represent. The nature of the language used in the lyrics and the actions documented in the lifestyles of the artists serve to feed this concern. Pop music is subsequently held responsible for many of the turbulent issues facing teenagers. However, this unease and the oversimplified views held by older generations do not deter record labels and artists from continuing to create and mass-market not only music, but also behavior to the youth of the world.
In the context in which it appears, "preconceived" most nearly means
During the Eagles' pre-season, the coach created a policy to open infielder tryouts to all current players on other teams within the Valley League and to give no infield position to a player from outside the League if a Valley League player tries out who is qualified for the position. Coach's procedure has been adhered to, yet even though several Valley League players have been qualified for any particular infield position, some infield positions have been filled with players from other leagues.
If the information provided is true, which of the following statements must also be true about the Eagles' tryouts?
Sunscreen works through a combination of organic and inorganic chemicals that help block or absorb UV-B rays. UV-B rays cause sunburn and other sun-related skin damage. SPF, or Sun Protection Factor, is the gauge of how well sunscreen will protect the skin from UV-B rays. Thus, those who use sunscreen with a higher SPF will suffer fewer sunburns and sun-related skin issues. It is important to use a sunscreen with a high SPF because, over time, sun damage can cause significant problems for the skin.
In the information provided, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A box girder bridge, an evolution of the plate girder bridge, is fabricated from either poststressed concrete or sheet steel plate, and commonly built for roadway flyovers and light rail transport. Some modern steel trestles, for example, are composed of a number of girder bridge segments. If of concrete, girder bridges may be cast in place, using falsework supports removed after completion, or may be prefabricated (as the steel-plate type usually is) in a fabrication yard, then transported and placed using cranes. The latter method is often used in situations where access for construction is limited to times of light traffic, which may be detoured around the work area, utilizing a limited number of lanes.
The passage is primarily concerned with
Sanskrit grammarian Pānini (c. 520–460 BC) is the earliest known linguist, often acknowledged as the founder of linguistics. Most renowned for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in an extended text that is still in use today, Pānini devised a grammar of Sanskrit that is technical and highly systematized. Inherent in its analytic approach are the concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme, and the root, only documented by Western linguists some two millennia later. His rules fully describe Sanskrit morphology without any redundancy. A consequence of his grammar's focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of contemporary "machine language," as opposed to "human readable" programming languages. Feinstein's scholarship contends that Pānini's sophisticated logical rules and techniques have been widely influential in both ancient and modern linguistics. Conversely, Wherry claims that South Indian linguist Tolkāppiyar (3rd century BC) was a more significant author of linguistic theory. Tolkāppiyar wrote the grammar text of Tamil, which is also in use today.
The passage states that Pānini accomplished all of the following EXCEPT
Although The Prince is frequently criticized for what is commonly thought to be the author's advocacy of the admittedly harsh, unscrupulous methods of grabbing power and in ruling, in reality, Machiavelli portrays successful actions that must be taken and that have made for numerous great accomplishments. True, some critics condemn him for being na?ve or for promoting fraud, force, and immorality in politics. Yet these historians fail to praise his ability to separate moral from political issues and ignore that his writing supports a republican form of government by exposing the faults of princedoms. In The Prince, Machiavelli provides illustrations from the lives of legendary leaders such as Caesar, Borgia, and Pope Julius II. Historians have pointed out that it is probable Machiavelli exaggerated or distorted some details regarding various rulers. It is clear, nonetheless, that this 16th-century political scientist is not merely spouting his own philosophies, but had read and observed the most efficient governing tools of the great leaders.
The author's primary purpose in the passage is to
Everything that is made in nature is capable of biodegrading back into nature to produce new substances or materials from the old. Biodegradable products can be broken down efficiently if given the appropriate environment to do so. The process in its natural form is perfect and omnipresent. Human participation in this process creates certain materials incapable of decomposing. The biodegradability of an item relies on three major factors. First, anything that is made up of natural substances or materials will return to the earth in some way, providing it has not been altered by manmade substances. The microorganisms responsible for the breakdown procedure do not exist for unnatural materials. Biodegradable products must also break down within a reasonable period of time. Finally, the substance or material must break down into a form that is not harmful to the ecosystem such as water, carbon dioxide, and natural minerals.
The passage is primarily concerned with
"A LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM," S.R. Ranganathan asserts in his Fifth, and final, Law of Library Science. In this, he allows (and even calls) for the library to adapt to the educational and knowledge demands of the society within which it exists. In a slightly tongue-in-cheek moment, he suggests that perhaps we shall eventually exchange knowledge by thought alone, like the utopia in H.G. Wells' Men Like Gods, but he continues to a more realistic supposition in which he suggests that knowledge may someday be spread by means beyond the printed page. In our contemporary world, we can see this as the revolutionary influence that the digital age has brought to the library world. Indeed, establishing the role of the library in the digital age is arguably the greatest challenge the modern librarian faces. Librarians are, by traditional image, a people resistant to change, and there persists an ongoing fear that innovations such as the Internet could render the old-fashioned library obsolete.

Ranganathan's response to this, however, might have been "and well it should!" - his focus of the library was on its place as a central hub of learning, not as an archive of textual artifacts. He saw no concern for the library in moving beyond the book, and this trend is visible in our own field as we begin to redefine our roles. To him, the dichotomy of internet versus library would itself be the crisis; librarians should not be asking how they can adapt to the digital age, with its new challenges and demands, nor should they be worrying about the development of information storage systems beyond "their" realm of the book and physical library. Rather, they must concern themselves with how they, as educators and providers of information, can help to develop the future of information dissemination. That the library world must even be concerned with how to respond to the Internet as an information source is an indication that it has been failing in Ranganathan's call -- the library has failed to grow.
Which of the following best describes the author's use of the phrase "tongue-in-cheek moment?"
The Middle English language arose in the years following the Norman Invasion in 1066 and lasted until the late fifteenth century; its development over these years was marked by a sizable reduction in inflected forms, continental influences on vocabulary, and a gradual disappearance of several characters, including ash, eth, yogh, thorn, and wynn. Of these, the thorn is notable for its particularly unusual decline in English. Borrowed from the Old Norse runic alphabet, thorn (T t) is a dental fricative, similar to th in Modern English, and can be either voiced (as in th in English breathe) or voiceless (as in th in English breath). By the fourteenth century, however, th was being increasingly used in thorn's place, and the shape of thorn itself began to change, coming to resemble most closely the letter Y, which would later replace thorn entirely. This led to confusion surrounding the late Middle and early Modern English definite article ye, which is even now frequently used anachronistically in names of establishments to give them an "older" or more rustic feel. However, the ye found in texts from the late Middle English is, in fact, identical to the in pronunciation -- Y was simply used as a replacement for thorn in writing, in large part due to the lack of thorn on printing presses imported from the continent.

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