In the days of sailing ships, fresh food was unavailable on board, and at the end of long voyages many sailors would contract scurvy, a potentially life-threatening condition. Today we recognize ascorbic acid as a cure for this condition, but in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century medical practitioners and scientists had no such surety. Shakespeare’s son-in-law, the seventeenth-century herbalist and surgeon John Hall, cured several cases of scurvy by administering an acidic brew composed of brooklime, scurvy grass and watercress, all herbs rich in ascorbic acid. The celebrated physician William Harvey suggested that sailors take lemon juice to ward off scurvy; he hypothesized that citric acid, the specific acid in lemon juice, would prevent the disease. In the mid-eighteenth century, the Scottish naval surgeon James Lind conducted an experiment involving 12 sick sailors to discover whether the acid was responsible for the cure. All of the sailors received the same diet except that in addition each day two of the men were given small amounts of dilute sulfuric acid, two others some spoonfuls of vinegar (acetic acid), two more a quart of cider, two more half a pint of seawater, two more a paste of spices with some barley water, and the remaining two a lemon and two oranges. Only those given the lemon and oranges recovered from the disease.
The hypothesis tested by Lind was that
  • Alemons contain some substance not present in vinegar
  • Bthe citric acid in lemons is effective in treating scurvy
  • Clemons contain some unknown acid that cures scurvy
  • Dthe substance to cure scurvy is found only in lemons
  • Esome specific substance, rather than acids in general, is needed to cure scurvy
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网友解答

当前版本由andalucia更新于2014-10-03 14:29:39

感谢由小世界,andalucia等3位用户对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

正确答案:E
答案解析:
some specific substance, rather than acids in general, is needed to cure scurvy.
Hall and Harvey seemed to have established the fact that acids are effective, but Lind’s experiment was
to find out whether it was acidity or some specific substance perhaps associated with acids that cured
scurvy. Today we know this substance is ascorbic acid, found both in Hall’s brew and in the lemon juice
suggested by Harvey.
Lemons contain some substance not present in vinegar is incorrect. Lind was testing more than the acid
in lemons and vinegar.
The citric acid in lemons is effective in treating scurvy is incorrect. Lind was testing more than the acid
in lemons.
Lemons contain some unknown acid that cures scurvy is incorrect. Lind was testing more than the acid
in lemons.
The substance to cure scurvy is found only in lemons is incorrect. Lind was testing whether it was acidity
or some specific substance perhaps associated with acids that cured scurvy.

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正确答案E

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