GRE作文argument高频前50提纲+中文分析

GRE作文argument高频前50提纲+中文分析

1. 53, (生命科学/科学假说/并列)Thirteen years ago, researchers studied a group of 25 infants(1) who showed signs of mild distress(4) when exposed to unfamiliar stimuli such as an unusual odor or a tape recording of an unknown voice. They discovered that these infants were more likely than other infants to have been conceived in early autumn(2), a time when their mothers' production of melatonin(3)—a hormone known to affect some brain functions—would naturally increase in response to decreased daylight. In a follow-up study conducted earlier this year, more than half of these children—now teenagers—who had shown signs of distress identified themselves as shy(5). Clearly, increased levels of melatonin before birth cause shyness(4) during infancy and this shyness continues into later life(6). ★★★★

  1. The sample of the mentioned      study is too limited. (quantity of the sample) ★★★

  2. No direct evidence is provided to      show that it is the high levels of mothers’ production of Melatonin that      resulted in the distress showed by the infants studied. (confusing concurrence with causality)      ★★★★

  3. The author fails to prove      that increased levels of mothers’ production of Melatonin will directly      affect their infants. (U.A) ★★★★

  4. The author simply equates      mild distress with shyness. (U.C) ★★★★

  5. Different individuals may define the term shy in various ways. (definition of the      term ‘shy’) ★★★★

  6. Many other genetic or environmental factors will cause shyness      in those teenagers. (I.T) ★★★★

 

25 infants,mild distress 论断:出生前某素的高含量会使婴儿害羞,而且这种害羞会继续。因为研究者在13年前对25个对陌生刺激表现敏感的婴儿进行了研究,发现他们比其他婴儿更多地在秋季怀上。而秋季母亲体内的影响大脑功能的某素产量会因为日光的下降而天然上升。如今这25名婴儿都十几岁了,今年一项跟踪调查发现他们大部分都认为自己很害羞。 ·论断忽略了一个前提,就是某素是否会导致婴儿害羞。论者没有提供任何对某素的科学研究,以说明某素的功能或是作用是什么。论者甚至没有提供资料证明某素是否会对婴儿产生影响。虽然论者说某素是一种对某些大脑功能有影响的荷尔蒙,但并没有告诉我们这种影响是对母亲,还是对胎儿。 ·论断的论据没有说服力。论断引用一项13年前对25个对陌生刺激反应敏感的婴儿的研究和今年的跟踪研究。但首先论者没有提供资料表明婴儿表现出来的敏感一下是因为害羞,我们不能排除这是因为刺激带来的生理上的不舒服。而在跟踪研究中,论者也没有提供有关这些孩子在这十几年里的生活环境的资料,我们不能排除环境对孩子性格的影响。 ·论断的结论很武断。论断某素的高含量会导致婴儿害羞,并在后面的生活中延续。但显然性格的形成有很多原因,后天的环境与经历也非常重要。结论:若要增加说服力,论者还需要提供有关科学研究资料,进一步说明某素对胎儿能造成什么样的影响。而且是否这种影响是永久的,无法消除的,论者也需要再进一步思考。

 

 

 

2. 51,(医疗/建议/对比)The following appeared in a medical newsletter.

"Doctors have long suspected that secondary infections may keep some patients from healing quickly after severe muscle strain. This hypothesis has now been proved by preliminary results of a study of two groups of patients. The first group of patients, all being treated for muscle injuries by Dr. Newland, a doctor who specializes in sports medicine, took antibiotics regularly throughout their treatment. Their recuperation time was, on average, 40 percent quicker than typically expected. Patients in the second group, all being treated by Dr. Alton, a general physician, were given sugar pills(3), although the patients believed they were taking antibiotics. Their average recuperation time was not significantly reduced(1,2). Therefore, all patients(4) who are diagnosed with muscle strain would be well advised to take antibiotics(5) as part of their treatment." ★★★★

  1. The author does not inform us      about the severity of injuries, physical conditions of the two groups of      patients. (I.C) ★★★★

  2. There might be other differences between treatments offered by      the two doctors.(I.C) ★★★★

  3. Sugar pills may cause      negative effects on the healing of the second group of patients. (I.T) ★★

  4. Not all patients who are      diagnosed with muscle strain will suffer from secondary infections. (C.S) ★★★★

  5. Not all patients with muscle strain are suitable to taking      antibiotics. (feasibility of the      conclusion) ★★★★

 

secondary infections,muscle strain 论断:要建议有肌肉拉伤的病人服用抗生素。因为医生最近证实二次感染会防碍病人快速康复。在一项对两组病人的研究中,第一组病人由专门从事体育药品的医生治疗,并在整个治疗中服用抗生素,他们比一般的病人快40%康复;第二组病人由普通医生治疗,尽管病人以为服用的是抗生素,但实际吃的是糖片,他们的康复时间没有明显下降。 ·论断的前提不一定成立。前提是二次感染一定会发生。但是论者没有提供任何资料证明二次感染会发生在肌肉拉伤的病人身上,或是这种病人容易发生二次感染。 ·论断引用的论据没有说服力。论断引用了一项分组研究。但是首先论者没有提供任何有关两组病人的资料。有关他们的年龄、性别以及其他生理特征。有可能服用抗生素的一组病人比较年轻,或是本身生理机能好,而不服用的一组病人可能都是体质弱的人。这样就不能说明是抗生素而不是其他原因使得病人康复快。另外两位医生的经验和水平也会影响病人康复的速度,一般来说运动医生会比普通医生更了解肌肉的问题,所以由他治疗的病人康复快,就不能排除是因为他的水平高或是治疗有针对性造成,这样也不能说明是抗生素使得病人康复快。第三,不服抗生素的一组食用了糖片,而论者没有给出资料证明这种糖片不会影响病人的康复。所以对这两组病人的研究并不能说明抗生素能使病人康复快。 ·论断太武断。论者由二次感染会防碍病人快速康复而认为要建议病人服用抗生素。但是抗生素除了会杀菌防止感染外,还可能会带来其他问题,比如副作用,也可能有的病人会对抗生素过敏。对于这些情况论者没有考虑进来。结论:为加强说服力,论者还应该进一步提供有关肌肉拉伤的病人中二次感染的概率有多少,并提供一份科学的研究,证明在相同医生、相同病征、相同病人生理条件以及其他治疗手段、环境相同的情况下,抗生素是能使病人早日康复。

 

3. 45, (动物/推测/并列)The following appeared as an editorial in a wildlife journal.

"Arctic deer live on islands in Canada 's arctic region. They search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of a year. Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed, and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters(1), the deer populations are declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends(2) that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the decline in arctic deer populations is the result of deer being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns(4) across the frozen sea(3)." ★★★★★

  1. The accuracy of the reports from      local hunters can be cast doubt on.      (selective sample) ★★★★

  2. The global warming trends      may have no effects on the specific region mentioned by the editorial. (C.S) ★★★★

  3. Alternative explanations can      also account for the decline in arctic deer population.(NCR) ★★★★

  4. The change in climate patterns does not necessarily lead to the      decline in deer population, deer may adapt themselves to the new weather      by certain means. (NCR) ★★★★

 

Arctic deer 论断:鹿的数目下降的原因是气温上升。因为气温上升使得海上的冰融化,鹿无法按照传统在冰冻的海面上迁徒。他举例说,最近当地的猎人报告说鹿的数目在下降,而这种下降又伴随全球气温上升的趋势。 ·论断的前提不一定成立。前提是当地的气温的确在上升。但是论者没有提供任何资料证明当地的气温比以前高了。 ·得出论断的前提是鹿的数目的确在下降。但是论者仅用当地猎人的报告,不足以证明。因为很有可能猎人只是因为打不到鹿,而认为鹿数目在下降。但是这些猎人活动的时间、范围以及习惯是否与鹿相同都会影响到他们是否能看见鹿。 ·论断的另一个前提是,气温上升会导致鹿数目下降。但是论者没有提供任何资料证明如果气温上升,环境改变,鹿就会死亡。气温上升或许会使鹿生存的环境发生变化,它们的活动模式或许必需有所改变,但这些都不必造成鹿死亡。 ·论断引用的证据没有说服力。论断说鹿数目下降的同时伴随全球气温上升的趋势。但全球势趋不能代表本地状况,很有可能全球某些地方气温升高很快,使得全球气温上升,但本地的气温仍可能不变,甚至下降。 ·论者的结论很武断。他认为是气温上升改变了鹿的迁徒模式,而不是其他原因导致鹿数目下降。但是显然猎人是否有过度猎杀、鹿的某种食物最近是不是大面积减少等等都能使得鹿数目下降。结论:论者若要增加说服力,还因提供目前鹿数目的变化情况,以及当地气温是否有上升。另外鹿的生存环境是否还存在其他的威胁也需要调查。

 

 

 

4. 7, (政治经济,社会/提议/并列)The following appeared in a letter to the editor

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