分析写作 > Issue > issue 开头方法
issue 开头方法 收藏 纠错
issue 开头方法 收藏 纠错

作者: 发布时间:2019-10-16

Issue开头怎么写?

厌倦了开头反问、重复题目的陈腐?致力于在ISSUE写作中取得更好的成绩?头疼于无从起笔、草草了事?相信在经历了入门阶段后,不少同学在写作ISSUE时都会遇到这种问题。由于语言背景差异,更接近于平常写作的ISSUE缺乏一个套路化的标准,不能象ARGUMENT那样在写作中标准化,因此长久以来一直是习惯了根据已知条件列方程擅长数学的中国GRE考生的大难题,加之新东方的特训,将这种不能量化的文章量化,导致文章缺乏新意,甚至因为固定套路不能对题而离题甚远,或者一时偷懒而被判雷同,血的教训告诉我们,ISSUE的写作不能局限于模版、经典结构、经典例证。而作为读者对全文第一印象的基石,开头则在这其中起到了重要的作用,俗话说的好,好的开始是成功的一半,一个精确的开头可以让你避免写作中出现跑题、帮助你整理思路,而一个个性的开头则能让你的文章使人眼前一亮,提前赚个印象分。用戴云教主的话说,你一出现,一切改变,他(阅卷官)爽(给你打高分),你也爽。基于以上原因,我才想把这个帖子写出来,希望此文能引起大家对ISSUE套路写作的思考,在写作中更多的独立思考,训练自己的思维能力,从而写出更为个性、有力的文章。

首先说精确的ISSUE开头,最精确的ISSUE开头是什么?恩,"I agree with the speaker that (把题目抄一遍)",这个开头绝对不跑题。问题是,除了"I agree",这个开头还有什么信息量么?
类似的开头还有"Is (把题目抄一遍)? I agree.""Who (把题目谓宾成分抄一遍)? I think it's (把题目主语抄一遍)""The (题目抄一遍) has been widely discussed. I think it's 题目一部分"等等
此类开头在我改过的作文里大概占20%左右,是最简单的开头方式,因为此易上手且没难度所以广受欢迎。
另外还有30%左右的ISSUE是这种开头的发展型,通常会在后面接个"However, under certain conditions..."于是成了经典的让步结构,或者直接否定题目观点,以However为转接后面讨论特别情况,这种用在题目叙述比较绝对的题中比较多,比如“Only xxx can make xxx”这种。

第一类开头的缺点很明显——没有信息量,其实写成"I don't agree with the speaker."就行了,这种开头对于题目内容比较简单的ISSUE用起来很合适,省下的时间可以用到BODY中去。然而由于信息量不足,它容易造成的影响是作者在之后的论点发展中缺乏方向,经常出现分论点重叠、车轱辘话来回说的问题。

第二类开头比第一类略好,至少让步段和主观点段不会观点重叠,但第一,certain conditions/specific situation/...这种分情况讨论的前提没有信息量,说到底还是废话,第二,由于让步条件不明,这样的文章写出来经常前后自相矛盾或者跑题。

这两种开头起码还能保证观点明确,如果BODY写的好也能拿到4.5甚至5分,但是可能是嫌这开头太模式化,或者不满意这种开头,自己写了些变体,结果使这种开头本来仅存的优势也失去了——即观点明确。请记住,ISSUE为立论,必有主论点,这个主论点可以立场中立,但一定要立场鲜明,这样才能使之后的BODY有效为论点服务。

来看个板油的习作(我随便从第一页的ISSUE中抽的,感谢RayTong同学  

TOPIC: ISSUE88 - "Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics."

 

The issue that the technologies' effects on our society has been widely discussed. Somebody assert that technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics while others argue that technologies can not determine our custom and ethics. However, I have my special opinion that technologies indeed have great affected all aspect of our lives even traditional customs and ethics, but in contract, it is determined by our customs and ethics.

To begin with, as the developing of the technologies, the conditions of our lives have changed grandly from the old days.……
Moreover, the change of our daily lives bring by technologies exert a subtle influence on social customs and ethics. ……
However, technologies cannot determine social customs and ethics all the time, and in contrary, it is determined by the social customs and ethics. ……


这里我截选了开头和各段主题句,从结构上来讲这个开头是属于第二种(陈述+转折),但是内容却是第一种(复述题目陈述观点),However之前的内容并不是作者的观点,只是重复了题目的观点,However之后是作者观点。本质上讲这个开头跟I don't agree with the speaker说的内容是一样的。
接下来看三个主题句,有什么问题么?第一、二个都是在说Somebody,第三个转到I have的内容——作者把第一种观点的内容按第二种观点来展开了,他并没有说自己同意somebody的说法(从howeve来看是反对的),却花了两段去论证somebody的说法。这时开头的定位不明确导致了文章的方向不明确。


再看一个比较标准的第二类开头(还是随机抽的,感谢板油dg336688 

TOPIC: ISSUE12 - "People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic."

 

According to some common experiences, some people assert that "people's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic".  I think this kind of statement is rather assertive and lack of  comprehensive understanding about the relationship between people's attitudes and its causing factors. Merely from its literal statement, I think the most majority of people probably can hardly accept this kind of opinion as well as mine. Certainly, immediate situation or surroundings shall make a great influences on people's attitudes , but internal characteristic of people can also make a difference. We get to have all-round and insightful thoughts to think it over.

On one hand , undeniably, people's attitudes are sometimes greatly influenced by outside surroundings. 

On another hand, to some extent, sometimes our attitudes are also affected by internal characteristic.  



这是个典型的由第二类开头模式造成的跑题,在讨论个别情况的限定条件时作者没有给出具体的限定条件,于是造成在论证过程中两面没有比较性,这个方面,如何如何,那个方面,如何如何,最后,两个方面,怎样怎样。注意题目的叙述是“more”,就是说作者没说一定哪个方面有哪个方面没有,而是一个比较型的题目,因此要对这两种情况的条件进行比较,因此在开头需要表明态度,至少说一句"Since the situations vary so diversely, we cannot make an absolute conclusion that ... is more than ....“ 不然文章论证内容跟题目就没有了契合点。

这个错误就引出了让步式开头的解决方案——怎样的让步式开头可以避免跑题/观点不明确?

首先说下让步观点的出发点,即辩证法,凡事都是双刃剑,其影响存在对立统一的两面,提出让步观点一是可以让自己的观点全面,从而封上被攻击的漏洞,二也可以在对付有些难题的时候不至于无话可说。也因此由于对立统一更直观,所以很多人在写作时容易忽视了统一,于是自相矛盾。

其实达成统一并不难,只要在观点中有一个明确的态度,给出一个不含糊的解决方案就可以了。我们看看范文是怎么做的:

题目:

"In our time, specialists of all kinds are highly overrated.  We need moregeneralists -- people who can provide broad perspectives."

 

In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to increasing life complexity and psychological displacement, both positive and negative effects among persons in Western society call for a balance in which there are both specialists and generalists.



非常简短的开头,一个分句给出背景,然后给出观点:call for a balance。同样是题目说到more,作者用了非常直接的手段点明立场,平衡,没有什么moremore的,谁也不more,然后后文就从两个方面来阐述这个问题。有人可能说,这不是还是没有重点么?没错,作者在二选一的选择中没有做出选择,但是他的立场很明确:我就是不选择,因为我有这些理由……

同样道理,在遇到题目绝对叙述的时候,我们可以用平衡观点来说,Admittedly....However, we cannot neglect....或者I don't agree...since in some aspects...这种时候开头在两个不同情况存在的前提下为二者达成共识形成一个中心句,就能有效统领全文了。

以上两种开头可以说是最简洁有效的,通常不超过半分钟就能搞定,对于时间有限的同学而言很实用。但需要注意的是,这种开头不仅仅千篇一律破坏阅卷官对你的印象,而且由于缺乏对后文内容的暗示而使文章不能有效组织。我们知道写PAPER的时候前面会出现KEY WORDSABSTRACT两个部分,用以向读者介绍本文的结构和内容。GRE AW当然做不到这一点,但是开头却能起到同样的作用。有了对后文的暗示,读者会在过程中更有效的follow your ideas, 同时这种写法也强迫作者在文章开始之初就规划好全文,避免了一边想一边写搞得分论点混乱的问题。

还是看下范文:

题目

"It is unfortunate that today's educators place so much emphasis on finding out what students want to include in the curriculum and then giving it to them.  It is the educator's duty to determine the curriculum and the students' duty to study what is presented to them."

 

As an elementary educator, I believe this stance is extremist.  Educators and the public must come to a middle road.  The high road and the low road are intimated in this statement.  I believe the high road on this topic (from whence should curriculum come) represents a nouveau approach.  Ask the students what they want to learn and study for the year; then meander, research and branch off of their interests.  The low road on this topic (directly endorsed by this statement) is old fashioned and outdated.  The assumptions behind this view include a magical ability by teachers to infuse reams of information, data and knowledge into students' brains that then become internalized and applied by the students.



这里作者的开头有些长,不推荐,不过他很有效的把全文的观点归纳为两个方面,即一边不好,另一边也不好,从本质上讲这个开头和上一篇范文的开头很象,但提出了分论点并说明了理由,这样后文再写就能很好的照应。当然这个开头确实有些沉冗了,建议大家写的时候能再概括些,只是用一两个关键词表明自己分论点的出发点即可。

再来看篇5分范文:
题目:

"The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things."

I can agree with the statement above that, "The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things. "  The statement  is an accurate description of how many people form great ideas from ordinary things in life. Sports are all great ideas that are made from commonplace things.  What makes sports some of the best ideas is not what they began as but what they evolved into.


非常眼熟的开头呵呵,"I can agree with...抄题", 但之后作者用三句话把文章的大体意思介绍了下,说体育如何能证明这个观点,从而把一个很大的话题细化,方便了后文的展开。当然这篇的出发点不太好,只局限于一个领域,在评论中也认为这是此文无法拿到满分的原因。

总之,简单开头的结构比较单纯,相应的也比较好掌握,缺点也很明显,可以通过增加信息量的方式来进行弥补,希望大家根据自己的情况取舍。


OK
接下来讨论我们更为常用,特别是写作文经过一定训练的老手比较喜欢的开头,背景引出话题式开头,或者叫复杂开头。

通常学术论文都会在开篇就自己提出的论题介绍相关背景,从而引出自己的论题,这种开头显得有来源有知识,而且在后文的论证中也可以用到背景,因此在时间允许的情况下进行ISSUE写作用这样的开头是个不错的选择。但由于结构相对比较复杂,有时候会出现介绍背景与文章无关、句子结构散漫的问题,如何让背景介绍发挥最大的作用就成了必须讨论的问题。

背景介绍也分成几种,比较常见的是社会背景介绍,即“With the development of society/technology/information”“Modern world is becoming so..."这种内容比较泛而且比较好写,一般遇到大部分题倒都能套上。但由于这个概念非常泛化,所以很容易就跟观点脱节,从而导致文章的开头逻辑不明确,背景介绍成为废话。

还是来看板油的习作(再次随机抽取,感谢strokes7

150"Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete."



Evolving with the development of technology, television and computer on internet supply human beings more and more information of the great world, such as pictures and literal introductions of many places.Should the information on television and computer take place of tourism? I do not think so. Even our visions are broadened by the information, television and computer would not prevent people from traveling, but stimulate people to do so.



红色为背景介绍,蓝色为主题句。
第一句能不能联系到第二句?可以,但并不直接。supply more information跟取代旅游有什么必然联系么?红字部分和蓝字部分的转折缺乏联系,这期间缺掉了一个环节,即问题的产生:由于电脑电视带来的信息越来越多,很多地方不去都可以知道,于是乎,有的人认为旅游过时了。然后再提问,水到渠成。

因此,背景式开头很重要的一点就是提供的背景与提出的观点光滑过度(smooth transition),存在必然逻辑联系,这样一来文章的开头就会显得比较有力度,而后文也可以有效利用介绍的背景来作为论证依据。在写作背景式开头的时候,考虑起始句如何引出观点,如何利用背景是关键,不要为了背景而写背景。

下面介绍几种其它的背景写作模式,希望能帮大家开拓思路。

引用式。开头引用名人名句,最俗的就是翟少成老骂的那个"a coin has two sides”,这种开头难度很高,想用好也很难,在不知道题目的情况下谁也不能直接找出一句跟题目对应很好能用于引出观点句子,所以只适用于写过的文章。如果撞大运撞上了自己找过句子的题目,那么无疑用这种开头会比较占便宜。

疑问式。这里说的疑问式不是把题目用问句写一遍然后自答,而是提出一些与题目相关的问题引起思考,从而引出文章观点,从某种意义上说,是间接复述题目,然后将中间的逻辑点用叙述方式加以连接,从而引出主题。比如上面说到的Issue150,开头说"Ever wanted to go somewhere far in universe? Ever complained about insufficience of money which keeps you from dream place? Now with the development of internet and television, such problems can be easily solved.“

叙事式。这种开头在长文章新闻中非常常见,似乎也是老美比较喜欢的一种开头,我看过的杂志里至少有一半文章是这么写的。但由于叙事对篇幅要求比较多而且不易掌握,所以在ISSUE实战中不是很常用。还是Issue150举个例子。"I sit down in front of my PC, turn on internet and login in a cyber world. Myriad images appear, as if I have got into the opposite side of the earth. How convenient it is! So you may wonder, is tourism in need any more?" 有时间的同学不妨尝试下。

无论什么形式的开头,为论点提供支持是最重要的,这种背景可以是对反面观点有利的,用于引出转折,也可以是对正面观点有利的,直接引出观点,或者是介绍题目背景,从而剖析题目的侧重点。

看下官方范文对开头背景的应用:
题目

"The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things."




首先要说这是一个非常庞大的开头,对于非疯牛级人物不推荐。
尽管很长,但这段的内容非常精练,每句话都是必不可少的,和其它内容融为一体。具体见点评

Even the most brilliant thinkers, from Socrates to Satre, live lives in time.(用事实提出题目观点的发展背景:牛人生活在时代中) A childhood, an adolescence, an adulthood; these are common to me and you as well as the greatest writers.(解释事实,进一步连接题目“common" Furthermore, many of the great thinkers we esteem in our Western culture lived somewhat unevetful lives.(再深入,将事实泛化为普遍情况,从而提供大背景) What distinguished their life from say a common laborer was their work. Therefore, what provided the grist for their work?(间接提问引出观点:grist of work One might say that they were brilliant and this alone was sufficient to distinguish their lives from the masses.(提出一种回答,他人观点,用以做完善的底子) Intellect alone can not devise situations or thoughts from no where; there must be a basis and that basis is most common, if not always, observation of the common, of the quotidian.(批驳他人观点进而进行完善,引向自己的观点basis Critics of this idea may argue that these thinkers were products of fine educations and were well schooled in the classics. This, they may point to, is the real basis for their knowledge.(再提出一个他人观点,将话题进一步引向自己观点)I would agrue (主题句先行词,阐明观点) that although it may be a benefit to study classics and be well schooled in diverse disciplines, these pursuits merely refine and hone an ability each and every person has, the ability to study human nature. Where best to study human nature than in the day to day routine each one of us can witness in him or herself or those around us.



先不提NB的语言,但是这段的结构就让人叹为观止,背景-》问题-》两个答案-》作者答案,层层递进连接紧密,一句废话也没有,所有的句子都有它的存在理由,在这里背景只是用于讨论的话题,而观点则自然成为了段落的重点,从而使文章态度鲜明,而否定的两个他人观点一方面使过度平滑,另一方面也否认了可能的反驳情况,从而令作者的观点更好更强大。当然这里略显得沉冗,个人认为一个他人观点足以。

回到开篇的话,背景式写作由于提供了更多样的可能性,所以能够令文章更具有个性,一个好的背景可以让文章开头就光彩十足,引出观点也更为舒服,因此在选择自己要讨论的背景时也需要斟酌,即使是最俗的development of technology/society...也要用细节来使其与自己的论题对应,避免出现空泛的背景,这样不但不能精确发挥作用,也不能突出个性。


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