解析库 > 2021年考满分GPO新题模考
Many scholars claim that the mass production and retailing of food has eroded class differences in consumption, producing homogenized food cultures. Others, however, contend that, following mid-twentieth-century changes in food production processes, niche markets superseded mass markets, resulting in more individualized consumption patterns. According to Mennell, the argument that industrialized food production standardized consumption ignores the fact that modernization led to more varied preparation methods as well as more plentiful food. For Mennell, the dominant trend in Britain since medieval times has been a diversification of food habits and the creation of a new "culinary pluralism." While Mennell rejects the standardization argument, he acknowledges diminishing contrasts between consumption practices of different social classes. He does not argue that class differences have been eradicated but rather that they have diminished, thus downplaying their importance in food consumption. However, many sociologists have been more concerned with the persistence of social differentiation. Nelson's study of the British diet between 1860 and 1980 showed class differences persisting a food consumption, while Tomlinson demonstrated class-specific disparities in food tastes in the 1905. This research has proved empirically valuable, yet it tells us little about what people`s food choices mean to them. Bourdieu, conversely, has illuminated the place of food within distinctive class cultures by which people define themselves.