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The phonograph never merely recorded music: it changed both how people listened and how they played. Early recordings of violinists suggest that vibrato--the trembling action of hand or fingerboard that gives notes a warbling sweetness-was once used more sparingly than it is today. By the 1930s, many leading violinists had adopted continuous vibrato, which became the approved style taught in conservatories. Musicologist Mark Katz proposes that technology prompted the change. When vibratos wobble was added to violin tone, the phonograph could pick it up more easily; acoustically, it's a "wider" sound. Also, vibrato's fuzzier focus enabled players to cover up inaccuracies of intonation, and phonographs made players self-conscious about intonation. What worked in recording studios spread to concert stages.